Plant used for/Stimulant

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Please add more about plants that are used for Stimulant here!

Stimulant
Excites or quickens activity of the physiological processes. Faster acting than a tonic but differing from a narcotic in that it does not give a false sense of well-being.

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Inventory

Here is EcoReality's seed inventory for plants that are used as Stimulant:

IDcommon namefamilylatin namedatequantityactiondays to germpropagationdays to maturityhabitatsundrainagesoilinventorynotesnutrientsneedsuse
259AlfalfaFabaceaeMedicago sativa (dg fo pf wp)Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ. The seed can also be sown in situ in autumn. Seed can be obtained that has been inoculated with Rhizobium bacteria, enabling the plant to succeed in soils where the bacteria is not already present. Alfalfa can adapt to a wide range of climatic conditions from cold temperate to warm sub-tropical, but thrives best on a rich, friable, well-drained loamy soil with loose topsoil supplied with lime. It does not tolerate waterlogging and fails to grow on acid soils. Grows well on light soils. Alfalfa is a very deep rooting plant, bringing up nutrients from deep in the soil and making them available for other plants with shallower root systems. It is a good companion plant for growing near fruit trees and grape vines so long as it is in a reasonably sunny position, but it does not grow well with onions or other members of the Allium genus.Hardy to zone 5. In flower June to July. Seeds ripen July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, lepidoptera, self. Self-fertile.partial shadewell drainedpoor0 eachLeaves and young shoots - raw or cooked. The leaves can also be dried for later use. The seed is commonly sprouted which is added to salads, used in sandwiches etc or cooked in soups. The seed is soaked in warm water for 12 hours, then kept moist in a container in a warm place to sprout. It is ready in about 4 - 6 days. The seeds can also be ground into a powder and used as a mush, or mixed with cereal flours for making a nutritionally improved bread etc. An appetite-stimulating tea is made from the leaves.

Alfalfa leaves, either fresh or dried, have traditionally been used as a nutritive tonic to stimulate the appetite and promote weight gain. The plant has an oestrogenic action and could prove useful in treating problems related to menstruation and the menopause. The plant is grown commercially as a source of chlorophyll and carotene, both of which have proven health benefits. The leaves also contain the anti-oxidant tricin. The root is febrifuge and is also prescribed in cases of highly coloured urine. Extracts of the plant are antibacterial. Used for asthma, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders (anti-ulcer).

Nitrogen, Protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin KAnodyne, Antibacterial, Antiscorbutic, Aperient, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Febrifuge, Food, Forage, Haemostatic, Mulch, Nutritive, Oil, Stimulant, Tonic
9Astragalus; Huang-qiFabaceaeAstragalus membranaceus (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-28 00:00:0080 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant21Scarify seed lightly, and use rhizobium inoculant. Direct seed in early spring. Good cold soil germinator and a poor warm soil germinator. Germ in 3 to 10 days. Thin to 6 inches apart.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing - but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours.

Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 - 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh.

As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
1460Plant is a sturdy survivor, and prefers full sun, average soil, and good drainage.

Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Prefers a sandy slightly alkaline soil. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c.

Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.
full sunwell drainedsandy50 eachTaprooted herbaceous perennial native to China.

King of tonic herbs. It is an anabolic immunostimulant, that may be dried and ground up, then used for making tea, decoction, or tincture. As a fresh root, may be boiled in soup to release its life-supportive essence.

Plants flower yellow-white to 4 feet tall.

Huang Qi is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs.

The root is a sweet tonic herb that stimulates the immune system and many organs of the body, whilst lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels. It is particularly suited to young, physically active people, increasing stamina and endurance and improving resistance to the cold - indeed for younger people it is perhaps superior to ginseng in this respect.

Huang Qi is used especially for treatment of the kidneys and also to avoid senility. The plant is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Atractylodes macrocephala and Ledebouriella seseloides.

The root contains a number of bio-active constituents including saponins and isoflavonoids.

It is used in the treatment of cancer, prolapse of the uterus or anus, abscesses and chronic ulcers, chronic nephritis with oedema and proteinuria. Recent research in the West has shown that the root can increase the production of interferon and macrophages and thus help restore normal immune function in cancer patients. Patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy recover faster and live longer if given Huang Qi concurrently.

The root of 4 year old plants is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.
NitrogenAdaptogen, Antibacterial, Cancer, Cardiotonic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hypoglycaemic, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Pectoral, Tonic, Uterine tonic, Vasodilator
267Autumn Olive; Autumn Berry, Silverberry, Aki-Gumi, OleasterElaeagnaceaeElaeagnus umbellata (dg fo pf wp)Seed: sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well.


Cuttings: half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, 10 - 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage.

Layering: September/October. Takes 12 months.

Plants can fruit in 6 years from seed.

An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.
full sunwell drainedpoorFruit: edible raw or cooked. Juicy and pleasantly acid, they are tasty raw and can also be made into jams, preserves etc. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit contains about 8.3% sugars, 4.5% protein, 1% ash. The vitamin C content is about 12mg per 100g. Mature bushes in the wild yield about 650g of fruit over 2 - 3 pickings. The harvested fruit stores for about 15 days at room temperature. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and contains a single large seed.

Seed: edible raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.


The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant.

The seeds are used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs.

The expressed oil from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Very tolerant of maritime exposure, it makes a good informal hedge, succeeding even in very exposed positions. The plants make a reasonable wind-protecting screen, they are about as wide as they are tall. They make a good companion hedge, enriching the soil and fertilizing neighbouring plants. The wood is a good fuel.
Antioxidants, Lycopene, Nitrogen, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin EAstringent, Beverage, Cancer, Cardiac, Food, Fuel, Hedge, Pectoral, Stimulant
16Bayberry; Candleberry MyrtleMyricaceaeMyrica cerifera (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-20 00:00:00otherSow in outdoor nursery bed or outdoor flats in the fall, winter, or very early spring, or cold- condition 6 weeks. Scarify before planting by rubbing on medium grit sandpaper. Space trees at least 15 feet apart.Plant prefers full sun.full sun50 eachPerennial, dioecious, evergreen shrub to small tree to 25 feet. Native to the southern US.

The root bark is a valuable stimulating astringent employed for treating diarrhea and dysentery. Bayberry root bark powder is an oldtime apothecary item.

The wax that surrounds the seeds is a high grade plant wax that burns clear -- aromatic to the max.
Antibacterial, Astringent, Dye, Emetic, Fragrance, Hedge, Narcotic, Oil, Sternutatory, Stimulant, Tonic, Wood
17Bilberry; Blaeberry; Whortleberry; FraughanEricaceaeVaccinium myrtillus (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-24 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSoak berries in water overnight, smash them, and remove the seeds. The easiest way to do this is to put the berries in a jar, pour water over them, let them sit over night, then in the morning pour through a sieve, smash the berries inside the sieve, then put the mashed berries in a bowl or small bucket of water, stir them around in the water, at which point the flesh will float and the seeds will sink. Pour off the majority of the water and the flesh of the berries, then in the very end pour the water and the seeds into a sieve that is lined with a paper towel. Allow this to drain, and you will now have the seeds on the paper towel, and you can proceed to scoop them up and plant them. Use your fingers or a spoon. Sow in fall or very early spring in outdoor conditions, in pots or flats, and expect germination in the spring. Alternatively, you may wish to remove the seeds from the fruits and then mix the seeds in moist medium in a sealed plastic bag or jar in the refrigerator (not the freezer) for 90 days, then remove from fridge and sow. The best conditions for germination are cool, moist shade. We find that this method is pretty reliable. Sow seeds in acid loam medium. Grow out in a shaded place in pots for a year before transplanting to final location. Bilberries prefer to grow in acidic loam soil.poor50 eachShort woody shrub growing in acidic, nutrient poor and subarctic soils throughout the world. Among all the closely related anthocyanin containing berries (including blueberries and huckleberries), bilberries are considered most potent, promoting night vision, improving vascular health and for treating macular degeneration.Antiemetic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Diuretic, Hypoglycaemic, Kidney, Ophthalmic, Tonic
248Butterfly Weed; Pleurisy RootApocynaceaeAsclepias tuberosa (dg fo pf wp)30Seed best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn or in late winter. We have also had good results from sowing the seed in the greenhouse in early spring, though stored seed might need 2 - 3 weeks cold stratification. Germination usually takes place in 1 - 3 months at 18°c. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out when they are in active growth in late spring or early summer and give them some protection from slugs until they are growing away strongly.

Division in spring. With great care since the plant resents root disturbance. Pot the divisions up and place them in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse until they are growing away strongly, then plant them out in the summer, giving them some protection from slugs until they are established.

Basal cuttings in late spring. Use shoots about 10cm long with as much of their white underground stem as possible. Pot them up individually and place them in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse until they are rooting and growing actively. If the plants grow sufficiently, they can be put into their permanent positions in the summer, otherwise keep them in the greenhouse until the following spring and when they are in active growth plant them out into their permanent positions. Give them some protection from slugs until they are established.

Prefers a well-drained light, rich or peaty soil. Prefers a sandy soil and a sunny position. Prefers a slightly acid soil. Prefers a dry soil. Plants are hardy to about -20°c.

Plants should be pot-grown from seed and planted out in their permanent positions when young. Plants are particularly at risk from slugs, however, and some protection will probably be required until the plants are established and also in the spring when the new shoots come into growth. The flower can trap insects between its anther cells, the struggles of the insect in escaping ensure the pollination of the plant.
sun or partial shadewell drainedrich0 each*Flower buds - cooked. They taste somewhat like peas.
  • Young shoots - cooked. An asparagus substitute.
  • The tips of older shoots are cooked like spinach.
  • Young seed pods - cooked. Harvested when 3 - 4 cm long and before the seed floss begins to form, they are very appetizing.
  • The flower clusters can be boiled down to make a sugary syrup. In hot weather the flowers produce so much nectar that it crystallises out into small lumps which can be eaten like sweets, they are delicious.
  • Root - cooked. A nutty flavour. Some reports say that it is poisonous.
  • An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The seed is very small, however, and commercial usage would not be very viable.

Pleurisy root is a bitter, nutty-flavoured tonic herb that increases perspiration, relieves spasms and acts as an expectorant. It was much used by the North American Indians and acquired a reputation as a heal-all amongst the earlier white settlers. Its main use in present day herbalism is for relieving the pain and inflammation of pleurisy. The root was very popular as a medicinal herb for the treatment of a range of lung diseases, it was considered especially useful as an expectorant.

It has also been used internally with great advantage in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism etc. Use with caution; this remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women.

The root is harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried. A poultice of the dried, powdered roots is used in the treatment of swellings, bruises, wounds, ulcers, lameness etc.
Antispasmodic, Carminative, Cathartic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Insectiary, Latex, Oil, Ornamental, Pollution, Poultice, Stuffing, Sweetening, Tonic, Vasodilator
323ChamomileAsteraceaeChamaemelum nobile (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-24 00:00:0056 each starts in greenhouse soiltransplantSeed - sow March in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not let the compost dry out. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring. Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 5cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer. Tolerates most well-drained soils, preferring a dry sandy soil and a sunny position[4, 37, 200]. Tolerates partial shade[16]. Established plants are drought tolerant[190]. Can be grown in grass[54]. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.8 to 8. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c[200]. They often deteriorate in very wet or cold winters, but usually recover quickly in the spring and early summer[238]. Chamomile is commonly grown in the domestic herb garden, it is also cultivated commercially for its flowers which are used in herb teas and medicinally. The double-flowered form is highly regarded for its medicinal virtues[165]. Plants can be invasive when growing in good conditions[188], though they are easy to control[K]. There is some confusion between this plant (which is a perennial) and the annual chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) as to which is the genuine medicinal chamomile. Some reports say that this plant is the most effective herbally[4], whilst others says that Matricaria is more potent[9]. Both plants seem to have very similar properties and either can probably be used quite successfully. Camomile is a very good companion plant, promoting the health of plants it is growing close to, it is especially good for growing near cabbages, onions and, in small quantities, wheat[4, 14, 20, 54, 201, 238]. The cultivar 'Treneague' is a low-growing non-flowering form that makes an excellent ground cover[197]. Fairly tolerant of being walked on, it is sometimes used instead of grass for making a lawn though it is more difficult to maintain and can become weed infested, especially in its early stages[200]. It also tends to become bare in places[208]. The whole plant has a pungent aroma, this being especially noticeable on hot days or when the plant is bruised. Ground Cover; Lawn; Cultivated Beds; East Wall. In. South Wall. In. West Wall. In.sun or partial shadewell drainedpoorCamomile is a common herb with a long history of safe and effective medicinal use - it is widely used as a household herbal remedy. It is particularly useful as a remedy for various problems of the digestive system, as a sedative and a nervine, it is especially suited for young children[4, 20, 21]. A tea is made from the flowers and this should be prepared in a closed vessel to prevent loss of the essential oils[4]. The flowers are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, nervine, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator[4, 14, 21, 37, 165, 201]. The single-flowered form is the most potent medicinally, though it can in large doses damage the lining of the stomach and bowels[4]. For this reason, the double-flowered form is usually preferred since this contains less of the alkaloid that causes the problem[4]. The flowers are gathered in the summer when they are fully open and are distilled for their oil or dried for later use[238]. They should not be stored for longer than 12 months[238]. The whole herb is used to make a lotion for external application in the treatment of toothache, earache, neuralgia etc[4]. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Soothing'[210]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Chamaemelum nobile for coughs and bronchitis, fevers and colds, inflammations of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, tendency to infection - improve immunity, wounds and burns (see [302] for critics of commission E).

An infusion of the flowers is used as a hair shampoo, especially for fair hair[14, 20, 168]. It is also used as a liquid feed and general plant tonic[14], effective against a number of plant diseases[18, 20, 201]. It has fungicidal properties and its use is said to prevent damping off in seedlings[238]. The flowers are an ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator[32]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. The whole plant was formerly used as a strewing herb[4, 168]. The whole plant is insect repellent both when growing and when dried[14, 20]. An essential oil from the whole plant is used as a flavouring and in perfumery[46]. Yellow to gold dyes are obtained from the flowers[168]. The plant makes a very good ground cover[197] and can also be used as an edging plant[200]. It does tend to become bare in patches[208].

Anodyne, Antiinflammatory, Antispasmodic, Aromatherapy, Compost, Dye, Essential, Food, Fungicide, Insect repellant, Nervine, Stomachic, Strewing, Tonic, Vasodilator
23Cilantro; Coriander; Thai ParsleyApiaceaeCoriandrum sativum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-07 00:00:00520 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow directly in the garden bed. Germination can be a bit cranky, so be patient. Sow starting in the early spring, in successions 3 weeks apart, in order to assure ongoing availability of the fresh herb.30Plant prefers full sun and regular garden soil.full sungarden200 eachAnnual. 30 days to cilantro, 60 days to coriander.

Harvest the shining, smooth leaves before the plant flowers for use as the culinary spice Cilantro in cooking and in salsa. Harvest the seeds and use them as Coriander, a curry ingredient and also a respected medicinal herb.

Medicinally, the fresh or dried herb and seeds chelate heavy metals and help move them out of the body—this includes mercury and lead. The seeds are especially stimulant, aromatic and carminative. Combine fresh green coriander seeds with spilanthes buds and extract together in alcohol for a mouthwash experience that surpasses everything with the possible exception of a crisp ripe apple right off the tree. Interestingly, we invented this combination spontaneously and only later found out that coriander helps the body chelate mercury that might be seeping from old fillings.

RECIPE FOR CHELATION SALSA Here’s our recipe for “Chelation Salsa” 2 cups chopped fresh cilantro 2 cups chopped fresh tomato 1 cup chopped fresh basil ½ cup chopped pumpkin seeds 4 cloves garlic, chopped and pressed Hot peppers to taste 1 TBS lemon juice 2 TBS olive oil

Salt to taste
Carminative, Seasoning, Stimulant
293Clover, whiteFabaceaeTrifolium reptans (dg fo pf wp)Seeds: Pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ. If the seed is in short supply it might be better to sow it in pots in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring.

Division: in spring[238].

Succeeds in a moist, well-drained circum-neutral soil in full sun, preferring a sweet calcareous clay soil.

Succeeds in poor soils.

Dislikes growing with henbane or members of the buttercup family[18]. Buttercups growing nearby depress the growth of the nitrogen bacteria by means of a root exudate[201].

It grows well in an apple orchard, the trees will produce tastier fruit that stores better[201].

It should not be grown with camellias or gooseberries because it harbours a mite that can cause fruit drop in the gooseberries and premature budding in the camellias[201].

Polymorphic, there are many subspecies and varieties. Some varieties have also been selected for use in lawn mixes[183].

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].
Grassland and lawns, preferring a calcareous clay soil[9, 17].full sunwell drainedclay3500 gramsA very important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[30] it is also a good bee plant[54]. A good companion plant in the lawn, tolerating trampling[18, 54].NitrogenAntirheumatic, Antiscrophulatic, Beverage, Depurative, Detergent, Food, Green manure, Ophthalmic, Tonic
10Codonopsis; Dang-shenCampanulaceaeCodonopsis pilosula (dg fo pf wp)7Sow in spring. Watch out for gophers, these roots are tastier than carrots!

Do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 6 weeks at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer and protect them from slugs until the plants are well established.

DIVISION in spring, with care, since the plant resents root disturbance. We have found it best to take small divisions that are teased out from the sides of the main clump so as to cause the least possible disturbance to the plants and to avoid having to dig up the clump. These small divisions need to be potted up and placed in light shade in a greenhouse until they are rooting well. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in the summer if they are large enough, otherwise in the following spring.
Plant prefers full sun to part shade and something to climb on -- preferably another plant but lacking that at least a string.sun or partial shadewell drainedgarden100 eachTwining and vining perennial native to China.

"Poor Man's Ginseng" builds chi and tonifys the blood. A fascinating climbing plant with bell-shaped blossoms. The roots are crunchy, very sweet, quite delicious. The herb in TCM is the pressed and dried, rolled root that is sugary and chewy. Highly recommended.

Adaptogen, Appetizer, Digestive, Galactogogue, Sialagogue, Stomachic, Tonic
24Echinacea; Purple ConeflowerAsteraceaeEchinacea purpurea (dg fo pf wp)2013-05-22 00:00:0060 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow seed in the early spring in flats outdoors or in the greenhouse, and transplant seedlings out to the garden or field in mid-spring (middle of May in our area). Starting earlier, and transplanting twice into progressively bigger containers will result in a much better rooted transplant, which will probably flower in the first year. It is fairly easy to seed this plant directly in the garden or field. Sow the seed shallowly in the early to mid-spring. Keep moist. Once the plants are up, you must stay on top of the weeds, and thin to 1 foot spacing after the second set of leaves has formed. E. purpurea likes full sun, plenty of water, and rich, limey soil. This is the species best suited to varied growing conditions, whether coastal or mountain, east or west. It is easy to grow, and produces on the average 1/2 pound of fresh root by the dormant period following the second year of growth. Plant 1 foot apart. Flowers 3 to 4 feet tall.Does well in pots.full sunmoist200 eachHardy to all temperate zones.

Herbaceous perennial prairie dweller. Originally native to a wide band stretching from Michigan south to Louisiana, then west to Texas and Oklahoma, but currently uncommon in the wild. Widely cultivated. Does well in pots. Our strain was derived from a rare wild collection and has been successfully and profitably cultivated for years here in the Williams Valley of Southern Oregon. It has not been intentionally modified or hybridized in any way from the original source, and therefore contains the rich spectrum of active chemicals found in the original wild plant.

Medical activity as per E. angustifolia.

On a plant-protection note, please consider that growing and using E. purpurea also takes the strain off wild populations of E. angustifolia.

Some discussion on using Echinacea in herbal therapy:

I find personally that the herb works best as a tincture of the fresh root, used at first sign of the common cold, flu, or indeed any kind of infection. The public wisdom is that Echinacea stimulates the immune system, and that this is the mode of action. The herb almost certainly stimulates the activity of the macrophages and killer T cells as it speeds the bodie's recognition of antigens. According to my teacher (may he rest in peace) Michael Moore, who seemed to have a knack for recognizing these things, the use of Echinacea in the early stages of (any) infection speeds the body response by 24 hours. That means that the use of Echinacea should shorten the period of infection (ie how long you have a cold) by 24 hours. Or, if used quickly enough and in large enough doses, it may keep you from getting sick. "Ward off contagion," as the ancients used to say. A headcold is the inflammation of the sinus membrane -- if you can reduce that inflammation with Echinacea (and snort a little dilute goldenseal tincture, too, for that matter) then you can convince yourself, perhaps, that you don't have a cold at all. Or reduce the symptoms, anyway. Increase the comfort factor.

Regarding the "hyaluronidase effect," Echinacea seems to clarify the interstitial fluids, softening the cartilage, helping remove metabolic waste products by way of the lymph. Echinacea can also be used for treating stretched ligaments and inflamed joints (tendonitis, for example). Generally in this case a high dosage is prescribed, and the use of the joint in question is limited, and the pain and inflammation is reduced.

As for using Echinacea if you have Aids or are HIV positive or suffer from any other autoimmune disease, then be careful, as Echinacea can exaggerate acute autoimmune episodes.

Echinacea tincture can be mixed with ground pharmaceutical grade charcoal and clay and applied to insect stings to help resolve them more quickly. This is a usage well documented in the Native American ethnologies. And, you can use it for treating brown recluse bites -- it will help limit erosion of healthy tissue and necrosis.
Immunostimulant
2Elderberry, Black; Black Elder; Elder BerryCaprifoliaceaeSambucus nigra (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-23 00:00:00182 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSoak berries overnight, smash them, and remove the seeds. Sow in outdoor conditions, in pots or flats, and expect germination in the spring. Alternatively, you may wish to remove the seeds from the fruits and then store the seeds in moist medium in a sealed plastic bag or jar in the refrigerator (not the freezer) for 90 days, then remove from fridge and sow. The best conditions for germination are cool, moist shade. We find that this method is pretty reliable. Elderberries will not grow properly in sterile soil. Sow seeds in very rich and composty soil medium. The breakdown of fungi in the soil will produce gibberellic acid, a growth hormone which is helpful for germination. Once germinated, the seedling grows very rapidly into a handsome bush or small tree. Grow out in a shaded place in pots for a year before transplanting to final location.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, when it should germinate in early spring. Stored seed can be sown in the spring in a cold frame but will probably germinate better if it is given 2 months warm followed by 2 months cold stratification first. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If good growth is made, the young plants can be placed in their permanent positions during the early summer. Otherwise, either put them in a sheltered nursery bed, or keep them in their pots in a sheltered position and plant them out in spring of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame.

Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 15 - 20cm with a heel, late autumn in a frame or a sheltered outdoor bed[78].

Division of suckers in the dormant season.

A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and situations, growing well on chalk, but prefers a moist loamy soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates some shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Tolerates atmospheric pollution and coastal situations.

The elder is very occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties though most of these have been developed for their ornamental value. The sub-species S. nigra alba has white/green fruits that are nicer than the type species and are quite nice raw.

The elder also has a very long history of folk use, both medicinally and for a wide range of other uses. All in all it is a very valuable plant to have in the garden. The leaves often begin to open as early as January and are fully open in April. The leaves fall in October/November in exposed sites, later in sheltered positions. Young stems can be killed by late frosts but they are soon replaced from the ground level.

Very tolerant of pruning, plants can be cut back to ground level and will regrow from the base.

The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly pleasant for it has fishy undertones, but from a distance its musky scent is appealing.

Very resistant to the predations of rabbits. The flowers are very attractive to insects. The fruit is very attractive to birds and this can draw them away from other cultivated fruits.

The elder is an early colonizer of derelict land, the seed arriving in the defecations of birds and mammals. It is a very good pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
127It's probably a good idea to grow 3 trees for pollination purposes, although we have certainly seen good crops of fruit from a single tree grown in isolation. Elderberries are best placed as an understory to a higher tree canopy. Will also grow in full sun if the roots are kept cool and moist.sun or partial shademoistloam50 eachPerennial, deciduous, multistemmed bush to small tree native to Europe. Wild form. This is the most tried-and-true species for medicinal use, and the berries are very tasty, and about twice as big as the berries of other species. Elderberry berries are rich in anthocyanins, bioflavonoids, vitamins and antioxidants.

The syrup, tincture or glycerite of the berries is excellent for treating the common cold and for overall increase in immunity. The fresh green leaves may be infused in olive oil to make an emollient embrocation for treating sunburn, rough skin, age spots, and/or diaper rash (normally individuals will not have both age spots and diaper rash, but it can happen). Truly, all parts of the plant may be used in herbal medicine, and this is much expanded upon in my book "Making Plant Medicine."

Flowers generally appear in year 3. Flowers turn rapidly into heavy clusters of fruits.

Elder has a very long history of household use as a medicinal herb and is also much used by herbalists. The plant has been called 'the medicine chest of country people'.

The flowers are the main part used in modern herbalism, though all parts of the plant have been used at times. The inner bark is collected from young trees in the autumn and is best sun-dried. It is diuretic, a strong purgative and in large doses emetic. It is used in the treatment of constipation and arthritic conditions.

An emollient ointment is made from the green inner bark.

The leaves can be used both fresh or dry. For drying, they are harvested in periods of fine weather during June and July. The leaves are purgative, but are more nauseous than the bark. They are also diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and haemostatic.

The juice is said to be a good treatment for inflamed eyes. An ointment made from the leaves is emollient and is used in the treatment of bruises, sprains, chilblains, wounds etc.

The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water'. The flowers can be preserved with salt to make them available for distillation later in the season. The water is mildly astringent and a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions. The dried flowers are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, galactogogue and pectoral. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes. The infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser.

Externally, the flowers are used in poultices to ease pain and abate inflammation. Used as an ointment, it treats chilblains, burns, wounds, scalds etc. The fruit is depurative, weakly diaphoretic and gently laxative. A tea made from the dried berries is said to be a good remedy for colic and diarrhoea.

The fruit is widely used for making wines, preserves etc., and these are said to retain the medicinal properties of the fruit. The pith of young stems is used in treating burns and scalds.

The root is no longer used in herbal medicine but it formerly had a high reputation as an emetic and purgative that was very effective against dropsy.

A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh inner bark of young branches. It relieves asthmatic symptoms and spurious croup in children.

The plant is a valuable addition to the compost heap, its flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator and the roots of the plant improve fermentation of the compost heap when growing nearby.

The leaves are used as an insect repellent, very effective when rubbed on the skin though they do impart their own unique fragrance. They can be powdered and placed amongst plants to act as a deterrent, or made into a spray when they act as an insecticide. This is prepared by boiling 3 - 4 handfuls of leaves in a litre of water, then straining and allowing to cool before applying. Effective against many insects, it also treats various fungal infections such as leaf rot and powdery mildew. The dried flowering shoots are used to repel insects, rodents etc.

The flowers are used in skin lotions, oils and ointments. Tolerant of salt-laden gales, this species can be grown as a shelter hedge in exposed maritime areas, it is rather bare in the winter though.

This is an excellent pioneer species to use when re-establishing woodlands. It is very tough and wind-resistant, grows quickly and provides shelter for longer-lived and taller woodland species to establish. It will generally maintain itself in the developing woodland, though usually in the sunnier positions.

A dye is obtained from the fruit and the bark. The bark of older branches and the root have been used as an ingredient in dyeing black. A green dye is obtained from the leaves when alum is used as a mordant. The berries yield various shades of blue and purple dyes. They have also been used as a hair dye, turning the hair black.

The blue colouring matter from the fruit can be used as a litmus to test if something is acid or alkaline. It turns green in an alkaline solution and red in an acid solution.

The pith in the stems of young branches pushes out easily and the hollow stems thus made have been used as pipes for blowing air into a fire. They can also be made into musical instruments. The pith of the wood is used for making microscope slides and also for treating burns and scalds. The mature wood is white and fine-grained. It is easily cut and polishes well. Valued highly by carpenters, it has many used, for making skewers, mathematical instruments, toys etc.

Fruit eaten raw or cooked. The flavour of the raw fruit is not acceptable to many tastes, though when cooked it makes delicious jams, preserves, pies and so forth. It can be used fresh or dried, the dried fruit being less bitter. The fruit is used to add flavour and colour to preserves, jams, pies, sauces, chutneys etc, it is also often used to make wine.

The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in large clusters. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Flowers eaten raw or cooked. They can also be dried for later use. The flowers are crisp and somewhat juicy, they have an aromatic smell and flavour and are delicious raw as a refreshing snack on a summers day, though look out for the insects. The flowers are used to add a muscatel flavour to stewed fruits, jellies and jams (especially gooseberry jam). They are often used to make a sparkling wine.

A sweet tea is made from the dried flowers. The leaves are used to impart a green colouring to oils and fats.
Antiinflammatory, Aperient, Beverage, Compost, Cosmetic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emollient, Expectorant, Food, Forage, Fungicide, Galactogogue, Haemostatic, Hedge, Immunostimulant, Insect Repellant, Insecticide, Laxative, Litmus, Ophthalmic, Pioneer, Pipes, Purgative, Salve, Stimulant, Wood
7Ephedra; Ma-HuangEphedraceaeEphedra sinica, sinensis (dg fo pf wp)2013-05-22 00:00:0060 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant11The seed is easy to germinate in a warm, sandy medium. Strew the seed on surface of very sandy potting soil (50% sand) and barely cover with more of the same potting soil. Tamp securely and keep evenly moist until germination, which in the greenhouse or under propagation lights should take about 11 days. If you are trying to do this outside in the garden it might take longer, as cold nights will prolong germination times. Basically you want to provide as much control as possible (ie plant in flats, not in the garden dirt) because the seedlings are small and you need to work them up to about 4 inches before transplanting. After germination, back off on the watering because the young seedlings can easily damp off -- this is a desert plant. 127Does well in pots. We grow the plants in a sand mulch, about 4 inches thick, in the full sun, with moderate watering. They create, in 2 or 3 years, a stubby, woody trunk bristling with the jointed stems. Cold hardy. Note on germination: Seed gave 80% germination in 11 days at 65 degrees F.full sunwell drained50 eachPerennial, primitive shrub. Native to the steppes of north and northwestern China. Rare offering of the main official species. Does well in pots.

Dried stem is a natural adrenergic stimulant to the central nervous system and a bronchodilator for treating colds and asthma. The whole herb, dried and used in small doses, poses no threat to the health. However, the very young, the very old, and the pregnant mother would best avoid using this stimulating herb.

Ma-huang prefers full sun and dry, sandy soils.

The flower is inconspicuous, but the fruits are quite fascinating -- fleshy scales adhered together at the end of the branch, colored orange, gooey and mucilagenous, and very sweet to the taste, containing the paired seeds with their flattened sides lightly clasped together.

More notes: There's a reason why Ephedra sinica is the official herb used for making the Chinese medicine Ma-huang. It has high concentrations of the various Ephedrine alkaloids and it has them in the naturally balanced state. It's a whole herb, and can be used in the form of the dried "stems" as a tea. The tea is used as a bronchial dilator -- very helpful for asthmatics, and like coffee, gently stimulating to the CNS (central nervous system). Its not dangerous when used at reasonable dosage (a cup or two) as an herbal tea. When the Ephedrine is concentrated (made into a drug, no longer an herb) then it can certainly be dangerous. We're suggesting using the herb in the traditional manner, at reasonable dosage, not as a white powdered concentrate that can overstimulate the heart!

In any form, Ma-huang is not a good herb to use if you are pregnant, nursing, very young, very old, or with a preexisting heart condition. Prudence is recommended! Other sources of Ma-huang also contain alot of Ephedrine alkaloids. In general, Ephedra sinica has a higher total alkaloid content than the other species. Ephedra equisitina is higher in Ephedrine than pseudoephedrine. Ephedra intermedia is higher in pseudoephedrine than ephedrine. Ephedrine levels may vary according to how old the plants are, where they are grown, when the seed is harvested, how the herb is processes, whether the nodes are used or not, how long the dried herb has been stored, etc. etc. Our plants are starters only. You can't make a useable quantity of dried herb off of them because they are too small -- the plants need to be planted out in a good situation and grown out for a couple of years before they get big enough to harvest.
Bronchiodilator, Stimulant
266Goji; Wolfberry; Chinese Matrimony Vine; Box ThornSolanaceaeLycium barbarum (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-31 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant7Plant prefers full sun and fast-drying soils. High desert conditions are quite conducive. Goji plants are drought-tolerant.

Seeds lose viability when removed from fruit. Soak dried berries in water overnight and remove the seeds from the softened fruits in the morning and plant them. Use a sandy potting soil medium. Sow the seeds just beneath the surface, tamp in, and keep in strong light. Water well to start, but back off on watering after germination, which occurrs in 1 to 2 weeks. Pot up seedlings and plant out to the landscape only after they are well-established.

Grow in greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Pinch out the shoot tips of the young plants in order to encourage bushy growth.

Cuttings: half-ripe wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel if possible, July/August in individual pots in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, autumn to late winter in a cold frame. High percentage.

Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Layering.

An easily grown plant, it does not require a rich soil, flowering and fruiting better in a well-drained soil of moderate quality. Succeeds in impoverished soils, but more fertile soils are best if the plant is being grown for its edible young shoots.

Requires a sunny position. Tolerates maritime exposure. There are some named varieties, selected for their ornamental value.

Plants are very tolerant of pruning and can regrow from old wood. Any trimming is best carried out in the spring. Plants produce suckers freely and can become invasive when in a suitable position. Otherwise they can be difficult to establish.
730Native to Northern China. Viney, likes something to grow on. Will spread on ground.sun or partial shadewell drainedpoor300 eachGoji berries are used fresh, juiced or (more commonly) dried and used like raisins.

They are a yin tonic, immune enhancing, and excellent for the overall health.

There is much confusion over the naming of this species. Most, if not all, of the plants being grown as L. chinense or L. europaeum are in fact this species.

Fruit: edible raw or cooked. The fruit is a berry about 2cm in diameter. A mild sweet liquorice flavour. Only the fully ripe fruits should be eaten.

Young shoots: edible cooked. Used mainly as a flavouring, they can also be lightly cooked for 3 - 4 minutes and used as a vegetable, the flavour is somewhat cress-like but has also been described as peppermint-like.

Leaves: wilt rapidly once they have been harvested; used as a tea substitute.

A sweet tonic decoction made from the fruits is used to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. It acts mainly on the liver and kidneys. The fruit is taken internally in the treatment of high blood pressure, diabetes, poor eyesight, vertigo, lumbago, impotence and menopausal complaints.

The fruit is harvested when fully ripe and is dried for later use.

The root bark is a bitter, cooling, antibacterial herb that controls coughs and lowers fevers, blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. It is taken internally in the treatment of chronic fevers, internal haemorrhages, nosebleeds, tuberculosis, coughs, asthma etc. It is applied externally to treat genital itching. The bark is harvested in the winter and dried for later use.

The plant has a long history of medicinal use, both as a general, energy restoring tonic and also to cure a wide range of ailments from skin rashes and eyesight problems to diabetes. A tonic tea is made from the leaves.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin EAntibacterial, Anticholesterolemic, Antipyretic, Beverage, Cancer, Diuretic, Food, Hedge, Hypoglycaemic, Ophthalmic, Purgative, Skin, Soil stabilization, Tonic, Vasodilator
34Gotu Kola; BrahmiApiaceaeHydrocotyl asiatica (dg fo pf wp)30Gotu kola is actually somewhat difficult to start from seed. Remember, it is a pioneer successional plant, with seeds that may remain dormant in the soil for decades until the right conditions occur for germination. Use a very well-draining mix (I've had zero germination in pots containing regular potting soil, except for one seed that was pinched between two pots and sprouted there -- clearly a situation of "excellent drainage." So, the best approach is to plant in greenhouse conditions in very excellently drained soil, just pressed into the surface of the soil, in which case the seeds will probably germinate in 30 to 90 days. Seed sown in the unheated greenhouse in the fall may give substantially better germination rates, but the germination time is likely to be up to 6 months. Division is simple at any time in the growing season, though the spring is probably best. We find that it is best to pot up the divisions until they are rooting away well, though in selected mild gardens it should be possible to plant the divisions out directly into their permanent positions.Old stone walls and rocky sunny places in lowland hills and especially by the coast in central and southern Japan. Shady, damp and wet places such as paddy fields, and in grass thickets.sun or partial shademoistpoor50 eachGotu kola is an outstandingly important medicinal herb. Its Indian name is 'Brahmi' which means 'bringing knowledge of the Supreme Reality' and it has long been used there medicinally and as an aid to meditation.

It is a useful tonic and cleansing herb for skin problems and digestive disorders. In India it is chiefly valued as a revitalizing herb that strengthens nervous function and memory.

The whole plant is alterative, cardio-depressant, hypotensive, weakly sedative and tonic. It is a rejuvenating diuretic herb that clears toxins, reduces inflammations and fevers, improves healing and immunity, improves the memory and has a balancing effect on the nervous system.

It has been suggested that regular use of the herb can rejuvenate the nervous system and it therefore deserves attention as a possible cure for a wide range of nervous disorders including multiple sclerosis. Recent research has shown that gotu kola reduces scarring, improves circulatory problems in the lower limbs and speeds the healing process.

It is used internally in the treatment of wounds, chronic skin conditions (including leprosy), venereal diseases, malaria, varicose veins, ulcers, nervous disorders and senility.

Externally, the herb is applied to wounds, haemorrhoids and rheumatic joints.

The plant can be harvested at any time of the year, fresh or dried. Some report the dried herb quickly loses its medicinal properties and so is best used fresh.
Adaptogen, Antiinflammatory, Cardiac, Depurative, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hypotensive, Nervine, Sedative, Skin, Tonic
46Ku-shenFabaceaeSophora flavescens (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-28 00:00:0044 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantScarify and soak seed overnight and sow fall to early spring. Work up seedlings in pots until they are big enough to withstand the rigors of planting outdoors.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse. Pre-soak stored seed for 12 hours in hot (not boiling) water and sow in late winter in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle into individual pots in the greenhouse, and grow them on for 2 years under protected conditions. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer of their third year.

Plants should be container-grown and planted out whilst young, older plants do not transplant well. A polymorphic species. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

CUTTINGS of young shoots with a heel, July/August in a frame. Also, air-layering.
The plant itself does well in the same habitat as Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaea rhamnoides), with an ability to improve poor soil and stabilize loose, sloping ground. Relatively cold-hardy broadleaf evergreens brighten the dreary drears of winter. Plant prefers full sun and is not picky about soil.

Succeeds in a well-drained moderately fertile soil in full sun. Requires the protection of a sunny wall if it is to flower, and succeeds only in the mildest areas of the country. It grows best in the warmer areas of the country where the wood will be more readily ripened and better able to withstand winter cold.

Although hardy to at least -15°c, this species does not do very well in the relatively cool summers of Britain, the plant gradually weakens and eventually succumbs. It can be grown in the milder areas of the country and be treated like a herbaceous perennial, growing afresh from the base each spring.
full sunwell drainedpoor50 eachEvergreen perennial shrub to 5 feet, native to China and Japan. The dried root of this handsome, nitrogen-fixing subshrub is one of the Chinese herbs that clears heat, having a bitter and cold nature, used for jaundice, diarrhea, vaginal discharge and sores. It is a relatively important herb in the Chinese materia medica.NitrogenAnthelmintic, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antipruritic, Astringent, Bitter, Carminative, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Insect Repellant, Parasiticide, Pectoral, Stomachic, Tonic
49Maca, Red; Maca RojoBrassicaceaeLepidium peruvianum (dg fo pf wp)6Sow the seed on the surface of the seed bed, stir it around with your fingers, then tamp in securely. Thin to 6 inch spacing, and harvest after the first year of growth. For most localities, best to direct-seed in September and harvest in May or so, but if your winters are very snowy I don't think this will probably work. In the case of snowy winters (zone 6 and under) I would plant this as a quick fall or spring crop and harvest small roots. We planted MACA for three years before we worked out a reasonable scenario and took in our first good roots, then a seed crop. Also, anything of this nature depends on the weather patterns of the year in question. As always, we encourage experimentation and the feedback we're getting is encouraging -- positive reports have been received from New Jersey, Santa Cruz and North Dakota. As my teacher always said, "Keep trying."The plant is very tolerant of high intensity sunlight and withstands drastic temperature fluctuations. Plant prefers fall, winter and spring conditions for growth. Full sun and a fast-draining soil is preferred. Maca likes a somewhat alkaline soil, such as decomposed granite or volcanic soils. However, lacking this kind of soil, regular garden soil will do. Composted manures are a good fertilizer for MACA. I don't think the plant will overwinter in less than zone 6, unless perhaps in very dry sites or protected alpine locations. Here in Williams we get very little snow, and the plant grows through the winter, which is preferred, as it gives the plants time to mature, and encourages bulbing (the hypocotyl). If left in the field for 2 years, the root will become quite woody and the plant will go to seed. Probably the best regions for growing maca are high steppes in tropical or subtropical countries, although it is worthwhile to try planting almost anywhere because very little is known about the potential adaptability. All plantings will be experimental until reasonable methodology and timing are worked out.full sunwell drainedgarden100 eachBiennial, radish-like, rosette forming plant native to the high Peruvian Puna. This is a high elevation cultivar that is considered to be medicinally superior to other strains.

The first photo is of a seedling that was direct-seeded outdoors. The new seed is extremely viable and vigorous, giving over 90% germination in 6 days.

Second photo shows the red-purple coloration of the root, which is still at the stage prior to formation of bulbous hypocotyl.
Calcium, Carbohydrate, Iodine, Iron, ProteinAdaptogen, Aphrodisiac, Cancer, Food, Infertility, Nutritive, Tonic
56PennyroyalLamiaceaeMentha pulegium (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-07 00:00:00520 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantDIVISION: Preferred propagation, as menthas cross readily and seed will not breed true reliably. Also, even in true M. pulegium, medicinal value differs widely between plants. Find the ones you like, and divide them to propagate clones. Divide any time of year. SEED: Sow spring in cold frame. Sow on surface in spring. Space plants 6 inches apart.Plant prefers moist garden soil, areas that puddle up and then go dry, the edge of a stream or ditch, or the margin of a pond. Grow in containers if the spreading habit of this plant makes you uncomfortable, but the rest of us let it go where it will, as it is self-limiting when it meets -- dry soil.sun or partial shadeseasonal floodingpoor100 eachHerbaceous or in warmer zones evergreen perennial native to Europe. One of the smallest of the mints, it creeps around in moist places and sends up its pretty flowering tops to a height of only about a foot, in the summer. Pennyroyal makes a bright tea that is well appreciated by many, but it should never be used during pregnancy.Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Carminative, Detergent, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Fragrance, Insect Repellant, Insectiary, Sedative, Stimulant, Strewing, Uterine tonic
57Pepper, African Bird; Pilipili Hoho; Pilipili Kichaa; African Bird Peppers; Birdseye Pepper; Pequin; Piquin; PenguinSolanaceaeCapsicum frutescens (dg fo pf wp)8Start indoors 40 to 50 days prior to the last frost. Thin seedlings to at least 2 inches apart in the flat. Transplant out to garden after the soil has really warmed up. We grow ours in a cloche even in the summer, as cold nights can set them back. The best compost for peppers is higher in phosphorous than nitrogen. Kelp is well-tolerated and makes for outrageous yields.170Peppers prefer a scanty, even water supply, good drainage, full sun, and a long, hot summer. Excellent choice for greenhouse pepper growers or folks growing peppers in the South or Gulf States, as well as in the tropics.full sunwell drained180,000 Scoville Heat Units. Perennial bush pepper. 170 days to maturity, best yields in the second year. These are grown by us on our farm here in Southern Oregon, the culmination of a long learning in the subject of African peppers. The plant itself is comely, 4 feet tall and with a flat top, leaves light green. Peppers are tiny, fiery hot, thin-skinned and easily dried, green at first, turning bright red at maturity (see pictures).

One of the primary reasons for my last trip to Zanzibar was to find a reputable and viable source of "bird peppers." These peppers find their way into local cuisine, to flavor samosas and curries, and they are used worldwide for making sauces, vinegars and medicinal compounds. The flavor is citrusy, smoky, and nutty (if you can get past the incredible hotness of them). Clearly, one way to get past the hotness and appreciate these peppers is to use them sparingly in cuisine -- a little goes a long way!

Medicinally, bird peppers are potently anticarcinogenic, warming, carminative, digestive, and stimulating. Tiny, fiery hot, thin-skinned and easily dried.
Carminative, Ornamental, Seasoning, Stimulant
82Pumpkin, Styrian Hull-lessCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-01 00:00:0018 each starts in outdoor soiltransplantPrepare the hill or the bed with plenty of aged manure or compost, direct-seed the seeds, and choose the three best seedlings from the hill (or if row cropping, thin to 1 plant every 3 feet). Keep weeded and watered. Vines will soon become self-mulching.90full sunrich30 eachThis is a unique pumpkin cultivar developed in the provice of Styria in Austria.

We have been thinking about the challenge of finding ways that people can grow protein-rich foods in temperated gardens with high yield for the effort and without the need for a lot of processing. Our search lead us eventually to the naked seeded pumpkin (so-called hull-less or Styrian pumpkins). These pumpkins have a seed that is encased only in a thin membrane, which may be consumed along with the seed. The seeds can be lightly toasted with a little salt or eaten raw and uncooked.

This is a convenient protein source, a good snack or addition to smoothies or salads, rich in unsaturated fat, an immune tonic and tonic to the reproductive organs of both females and males. Consumption of the seed is a specific for treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as prostate cancer.

These pumpkins are all about the seeds -- the flesh itself is low sugar and not particularly tasty. They make good goat food. So back to being after the seeds, which are a great protein source, we obtained some nice open-pollinated seed of this plant and grew a large patch of it this year. The plant turned out to be problem-free, fast-growing and a rewardingly prolific producer of the large fruits.

Harvest and processing: Harvest pumpkins after first frost, split open and scoop out seeds and spaghetti onto a table screen. Using your hands and a garden hose, work the mash and water it down until the seeds are free of spaghetti. Scoop up the seeds and air dry them on screens, stirring several times per day, until the seeds are dry and stable. Store in paper bags.
PotassiumAnthelmintic, Food, Forage, Immunostimulant, Oil, Veterinary
62Rhodiola, Alpine; Golden Root; Rose RootCrassulaceaeRhodiola rosea (dg fo pf wp)42Germination benefits greatly from cold conditioning/stratification, possibly ~ 6 weeks at 5 Celcius or colder, though typically seed is sown on moist sterilized potting soil (in plugtrays - 72 cell trays are popular) during the winter and placed outside for two months or more, preferably with snow cover. Seeds can be covered lightly or pressed into the soil surface, but should not be buried too deeply or allowed to dry out completely. In Canada, sprouts appear in late April or early May, after daytime temperatures increase, and can withstand significant frosts. Alternatively, strategies which utilize or mimic ethylene gas may also promote germination. Young seedlings grow slowly, and do better in a location semi-sheltered from sun and wind. They grow slowly, suffering both when the soil remains saturated with moisture for extended periods and when the soil becomes very dry. Thus a balance between overwatering and drought conditions should be maintained. Mild fertilization may be beneficial, but is not required. After a month or two, when a stalk is sent up from the rosette of seed leaves, seedlings can be exposed to more sun to maximize growth. Seedlings can be transplanted in their first year, but can also be kept in plugtrays for a year or two to minimize weeding in the field. Excellent transplant survival rates can be achieved any time the ground is not frozen, even with dormant (leafless) plugs in the fall. Eventually plant growth will suffer if seedlings are not planted out. -- GORDON STEINRATHS127Ideal growing site components include full or almost full sun, good drainage during the spring runoff and some shelter from the wind. While the latter is not imperitive, it will help conserve soil moisture and enhance growth. R. rosea is very drought tolerant and does not require irrigation, however, it will benefit from regular watering - natural or otherwise. Field spacing depends on the chosen weed control system, especially if plastic mulch is used. One foot in-row spacing, with eight-inch between-row spacing of plants is an average for current trials, giving three to four rows of plants per (mulched) bed. Path spacing between beds will vary with the weeding regime, or a solid (pathless) planting may be prefered.sun or partial shademoist100 eachPerennial, fleshy succulent. Rhodiola rosea is quite variable depending on origin. This seed originated from Austria and Germany, and the photo is characteristic of its form. The dried roots are rose-scented, loaded with immune stimulating glycosides (e.g. rosavin, rosin). Uplifting adaptogenic properties similar to Eleuthero Ginseng. Rhodiola does best at elevation and in the North.

Time to harvest can be as short as three growing seasons, when roots can attain 0.75% rosavin content or better, though four to five year's growth will provide greater root biomass and a rosavin content of 1% or more. The roots tend to deteriorate from within as they age, harboring patches of necrotic tissue (or "heartrot") to which they will eventually succumb. The upshot is that - while there may be 75-year old plants in the wild - the maximum age of a commercial field may only be six or seven years. The dynamics of root attrition due to disease are not yet understood, and may differ with various cultivars and soil conditions. Initial indications are that fertilization is not benificial under normal conditions.

R. rosea is an adaptable species, and as such appears to do well in a variety of soil types, from rocky gravel through heavy clay to silty, sandy and peaty loam soil types. The relationship between soil pH and rosavin levels is presently poorly understood, but may favor acidity - ? As a circumpolar species, Rhodiola does well at high latitudes, where its production of rosavins assists survival under harsh conditions. How it performs in warmer climates will be an interesting experiment.
Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
64Rhodiola, Russian; Golden Root; Rose RootCrassulaceaeRhodiola rosea (dg fo pf wp)42Germination benefits greatly from cold conditioning/stratification, possibly ~ 6 weeks at 5 Celcius or colder, though typically seed is sown on moist sterilized potting soil (in plugtrays - 72 cell trays are popular) during the winter and placed outside for two months or more, preferably with snow cover. Seeds can be covered lightly or pressed into the soil surface, but should not be buried too deeply or allowed to dry out completely. In Canada, sprouts appear in late April or early May, after daytime temperatures increase, and can withstand significant frosts. Alternatively, strategies which utilize or mimic ethylene gas may also promote germination. Young seedlings grow slowly, and do better in a location semi-sheltered from sun and wind. They grow slowly, suffering both when the soil remains saturated with moisture for extended periods and when the soil becomes very dry. Thus a balance between overwatering and drought conditions should be maintained. Mild fertilization may be beneficial, but is not required. After a month or two, when a stalk is sent up from the rosette of seed leaves, seedlings can be exposed to more sun to maximize growth. Seedlings can be transplanted in their first year, but can also be kept in plugtrays for a year or two to minimize weeding in the field. Excellent transplant survival rates can be achieved any time the ground is not frozen, even with dormant (leafless) plugs in the fall. Eventually plant growth will suffer if seedlings are not planted out. -- GORDON STEINRATHS127Ideal growing site components include full or almost full sun, good drainage during the spring runoff and some shelter from the wind. While the latter is not imperitive, it will help conserve soil moisture and enhance growth. R. rosea is very drought tolerant and does not require irrigation, however, it will benefit from regular watering - natural or otherwise. Field spacing depends on the chosen weed control system, especially if plastic mulch is used. One foot in-row spacing, with eight-inch between-row spacing of plants is an average for current trials, giving three to four rows of plants per (mulched) bed. Path spacing between beds will vary with the weeding regime, or a solid (pathless) planting may be prefered.sun or partial shademoist100 eachPerennial, fleshy succulent. Rhodiola rosea is quite variable depending on location. This seed was collected in Russia. The dried roots are rose-scented, loaded with immune stimulating glycosides (e.g. rosavin, rosin). Uplifting adaptogenic properties similar to Eleuthero Ginseng. Prefers limey soil or rock garden. Not very heat tolerant. Flowers to 10 inches.

Time to harvest can be as short as three growing seasons, when roots can attain 0.75% rosavin content or better, though four to five year's growth will provide greater root biomass and a rosavin content of 1% or more. The roots tend to deteriorate from within as they age, harboring patches of necrotic tissue (or "heartrot") to which they will eventually succumb. The upshot is that - while there may be 75-year old plants in the wild - the maximum age of a commercial field may only be six or seven years. The dynamics of root attrition due to disease are not yet understood, and may differ with various cultivars and soil conditions. Initial indications are that fertilization is not benificial under normal conditions.

R. rosea is an adaptable species, and as such appears to do well in a variety of soil types, from rocky gravel through heavy clay to silty, sandy and peaty loam soil types. The relationship between soil pH and rosavin levels is presently poorly understood, but may favor acidity - ? As a circumpolar species, Rhodiola does well at high latitudes, where its production of rosavins assists survival under harsh conditions. How it performs in warmer climates will be an interesting experiment.
Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
63Rhodiola, Scandanavian; Golden Root; Rose RootCrassulaceaeRhodiola rosea (dg fo pf wp)42Germination benefits greatly from cold conditioning/stratification, possibly ~ 6 weeks at 5 Celcius or colder, though typically seed is sown on moist sterilized potting soil (in plugtrays - 72 cell trays are popular) during the winter and placed outside for two months or more, preferably with snow cover. Seeds can be covered lightly or pressed into the soil surface, but should not be buried too deeply or allowed to dry out completely. In Canada, sprouts appear in late April or early May, after daytime temperatures increase, and can withstand significant frosts. Alternatively, strategies which utilize or mimic ethylene gas may also promote germination. Young seedlings grow slowly, and do better in a location semi-sheltered from sun and wind. They grow slowly, suffering both when the soil remains saturated with moisture for extended periods and when the soil becomes very dry. Thus a balance between overwatering and drought conditions should be maintained. Mild fertilization may be beneficial, but is not required. After a month or two, when a stalk is sent up from the rosette of seed leaves, seedlings can be exposed to more sun to maximize growth. Seedlings can be transplanted in their first year, but can also be kept in plugtrays for a year or two to minimize weeding in the field. Excellent transplant survival rates can be achieved any time the ground is not frozen, even with dormant (leafless) plugs in the fall. Eventually plant growth will suffer if seedlings are not planted out. -- GORDON STEINRATHS127Ideal growing site components include full or almost full sun, good drainage during the spring runoff and some shelter from the wind. While the latter is not imperitive, it will help conserve soil moisture and enhance growth. R. rosea is very drought tolerant and does not require irrigation, however, it will benefit from regular watering - natural or otherwise. Field spacing depends on the chosen weed control system, especially if plastic mulch is used. One foot in-row spacing, with eight-inch between-row spacing of plants is an average for current trials, giving three to four rows of plants per (mulched) bed. Path spacing between beds will vary with the weeding regime, or a solid (pathless) planting may be prefered.sun or partial shademoist100 eachPerennial, fleshy succulent. Rhodiola rosea is quite variable depending on origin. This seed originated from Norway.The photo is characteristic of its form. The dried roots are rose-scented, loaded with immune stimulating glycosides (e.g. rosavin, rosin). Uplifting adaptogenic properties similar to Eleuthero Ginseng. These plants are not very heat tolerant and will do best at elevation and in the north.

Time to harvest can be as short as three growing seasons, when roots can attain 0.75% rosavin content or better, though four to five year's growth will provide greater root biomass and a rosavin content of 1% or more. The roots tend to deteriorate from within as they age, harboring patches of necrotic tissue (or "heartrot") to which they will eventually succumb. The upshot is that - while there may be 75-year old plants in the wild - the maximum age of a commercial field may only be six or seven years. The dynamics of root attrition due to disease are not yet understood, and may differ with various cultivars and soil conditions. Initial indications are that fertilization is not benificial under normal conditions.

R. rosea is an adaptable species, and as such appears to do well in a variety of soil types, from rocky gravel through heavy clay to silty, sandy and peaty loam soil types. The relationship between soil pH and rosavin levels is presently poorly understood, but may favor acidity - ? As a circumpolar species, Rhodiola does well at high latitudes, where its production of rosavins assists survival under harsh conditions. How it performs in warmer climates will be an interesting experiment.
Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
11Sage, Chinese Red; Tan-shen; Dan-shenLamiaceaeSalvia miltiorrhiza (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-28 00:00:0057 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow in fast-draining soil in the full sun. Gratifyingly easy germinator -- sow in spring and work up in pots before transplanting to the landscape. Mulch heavily to overwinter, unless you're in Santa Barbara...full sunwell drained20 eachHerbaceous perennial native to Manchuria. This is the official species.

One of the best circulation enhancing herbs. Known as a non-enervating stimulant, it improves blood flow to the extremities without compromising the adrenals. Helps move stuck blood as in atherosclerosis or menstrual woes. I went to a conference where a well-known practitioner of acupuncture said, "This is my favorite Chinese herb and everyone should be taking it." Although my opinion varies somewhat from this statement, still I consider Dan-shen to be an excellent herb for addressing poor circulation issues and also for prevention of stroke, even in individuals who are at high risk of stroke or who have already endured one of these frightening and often debilitating episodes.

Finally, the herb itself is comely, and the roots, as shown in the photo I took for the webpage, look like veins, being bright red, and are an obvious signature of the herb's activity. Excellent choice for herb gardens throughout the temperate north and a show plant for sure.
Ornamental, Stimulant, Vasodilator
67Sea BuckthornElaeagnaceaeHippophae rhamnoides (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-30 00:00:0032 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant14Scarify seeds and sow in warm, sandy soil. Germination is in 2 weeks or so -- a dependable and fun germinator. Space 10 or more feet apart.20 eachDioecious, spiny shrub to small tree. Native to temperate Europe and Asia. All zones. The tree, even when young and bush-like, is excellent in hedgerows and shelterbelts. The fruit juice is loaded with vitamins, amino acids and antioxidants; improves immune response. Oil of seeds is an effective sunblock.NitrogenFood, Immunostimulant
322SpearmintLamiaceaeMentha spicata (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-24 00:00:0056 each starts in greenhouse soiltransplantSeed - sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true. Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is best to propagate them by division[K]. Division can be easily carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be planted out in the summer. Woodland garden sunny edge; dappled shade; shady edge; cultivated bedspartial shademoistclayAntiemetic, Antiseptic, Cancer, Carminative, Diuretic, Essential, Insect Repellant, Poultice, Restorative, Stimulant, Stomachic, Strewing
69Sumac, Smooth; Sumach TreeAnacardiaceaeRhus glabra (dg fo pf wp)Scarify and sow in spring.Plant prefers part shade to full sun and will flourish in any soil, including clay.sun or partial shadeSmall deciduous tree to 15 feet, with a flattened, spreading crown. All zones. Throughout North America, the several species of Sumac decorate field, roadside and yard with their deep-red, fall colors and erect, cone-like clusters of fruit. The fruit is covered with fuzz, rich in malic and ascorbic acid crystals, very high in vitamin C. You can make tasty sun tea from these fruits.Alterative, Antiseptic, Appetizer, Astringent, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Galactogogue, Haemostatic, Hedge, Mordant, Oil, Ophthalmic, Pioneer, Refrigerant, Rubefacient, Salve, Shelterbelt, Soil stabilization, Tannin, TB, Tonic, Wood
74Uva Ursi; Bearberry; KinnikinikEricaceaeArctostaphylos uva-ursi (dg fo pf wp)60Scarify seed vigorously on sandpaper. Fire dependent germinator. Sow in fall, spring, or summer. Space plants 1 foot apart.

Seed: best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak dried seed in boiling water for 10 - 20 seconds or burn some straw on top of them and then stratify at 2 - 5°c for 2 months. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 3 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer.

Cuttings of side shoots of the current season's growth, 5 - 8cm with a heel, August to December in a frame. The cuttings are very slow and can take a year to root.

Division in early spring. Take care because the plant resents root disturbance. Pot the divisions up and keep them in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing away actively.

Layering of long branches in early spring.

Requires a deep moist well-drained light or medium lime-free loam in sun or semi-shade. Shade tolerant but plants produce less fruit when they are grown in the shade. Prefers a cool damp position.

A very ornamental plant, it is sometimes cultivated for its medicinal uses.

There are a number of named varieties developed for their ornamental interest. The form 'Massachusetts' is an especially prostrate, free-flowering and free-fruiting form. 'Anchor Bay', 'Point Reyes' and 'Vulcan's Peak' have all been mentioned as good groundcover forms.

This is one of the first plants to colonize bare and rocky ground and burnt over areas. It is often an indicator of poor soils in the wild. Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their final positions as soon as possible. Hybridizes with other members of this genus, especially A. columbiana.
Plant prefers acid soils, full sun to part shade.partial shademoistloam30 eachHardy to: All zones. Spreading perennial evergreen groundcover. Circumpolar. The herb covers entire hillsides and has been adopted by landscapers for use in the city as a drought tolerant, glossy leaved groundcover. Does well in pots.

Smokeable. Tea or tincture treats mild urinary infections.

Bearberry was commonly used by many native North American Indian tribes to treat a wide range of complaints and has also been used in conventional herbal medicine for hundreds of years, it is one of the best natural urinary antiseptics. The leaves contain hydroquinones and are strongly antibacterial, especially against certain organisms associated with urinary infections. The plant should be used with caution, however, because hydroquinones are also toxic.

The dried leaves are used in the treatment of a variety of complaints. These leaves should be harvested in early autumn, only green leaves being selected, and then dried in gentle heat.

A tea made from the dried leaves is much used for kidney and bladder complaints and inflammations of the urinary tract such as acute and chronic cystitis and urethritis, but it should be used with caution and preferably only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The tea is more effective if the urine is alkaline, thus it is best used in combination with a vegetable-based diet.

Externally, a poultice of the infused leaves with oil has been used as a salve to treat rashes, skin sores etc, and as a wash for a baby's head. An infusion of the leaves has been used as an eyewash, a mouthwash for cankers and sore gums and as a poultice for back pains, rheumatism, burns etc.

The dried leaves have been used for smoking as an alternative to tobacco.

The herb should not be prescribed to children, pregnant women or patients with kidney disease. Other uses: fluid retention and bed wetting. Claimed to strengthen the heart muscle and urinary tract and to return the womb to its normal size after childbirth. Treatment should be short (seven days) and used with an alkaline diet. Not recommended for children under 12.

Edible fruit, raw or cooked. Insipid, dry and mealy, it becomes sweeter when cooked. Added to stews etc, it is a good source of carbohydrates.

The fruit can also be used to make a cooling drink or used for preserves etc. It can be dried and stored for later use. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter. A tea is made from the dried leaves.

A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves, it does not require a mordant. A grey-brown dye is obtained from the fruit.

The dried fruits are used in rattles and as beads on necklaces etc.

The leaves are a good source of tannin. The mashed berries can be rubbed on the insides of coiled cedar root baskets in order to waterproof them. A good ground-cover for steep sandy banks in a sunny position or in light shade. A carpeting plant, growing fairly fast and carpeting as it spreads. It is valuable for checking soil erosion on watersheds. This is also a pioneer plant in the wild, often being the first plant to colonize burnt-over areas, especially on poor soils.
Antiseptic, Astringent, Beads, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Hypnotic, Kidney, Lithontripic, Ornamental, Pioneer, Poultice, Skin, Soil stabilization, Tannin, Tonic, Waterproofing
75ValerianValerianaceaeValeriana officinalis (dg fo pf wp)10Seed is short-lived and should be sown within a year of receipt. Light dependent germinator. Sow in spring, tamped securely into surface, and keep evenly moist until germination, which occurs in 10 to 16 days. Seedling leaves look very un-valerian at first and some folks are confused. But have faith, in time the leaves will become divided and much more closely resemble the standard form of the plant. Space plants 1 to 2 feet apart.

Seed: sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed because it requires light for germination. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant out into their permanent positions in the summer if sufficient growth has been made. If the plants are too small to plant out, grow them on in the greenhouse or frame for their first winter and plant them out early in the following summer.

Division: in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.


A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in ordinary garden soil, preferring a rich heavy loam in a moist site. Thrives in full sun or in partial shade, doing well in light woodland.

A polymorphic species, the more extreme variations are given specific status by some botanists. Valerian is often grown in the herb garden and also sometimes grown commercially as a medicinal herb.

When grown for its medicinal root, the plant should not be allowed to flower. The flowers and the dried roots have a strong smell somewhat resembling stale perspiration. Cats are very fond of this plant, particularly the powdered root. Once a cat has discovered a plant they will often destroy it by constantly rolling over it.

The dried root also attracts rats and can be used as a bait in traps. A good companion for most plants.
730Valerian prefers full sun to part shade and moist but well-drained soils. I have seen excellent clumps form, during a wet spring, on the peak of a pile of ground pumice. However, regular garden soil amended with organic compost will do nicely. The plant adapts rather well to a wide range of conditions.sun or partial shademoistclay0 eachHerbaceous perennial. Native to Europe and temperate Asia.

One of the best phosphorous accumulators.

Probably the strongest herbal cerebral sedative, the plant makes one go to sleep. All parts of the plant are active, but it is the spreading root and root crown, dug and used fresh, that is most commonly used, and the tincture of the fresh root is the most common dosage form. However, I have gone to sleep after eating a salad that an unwitting apprentice had prepared using valerian leaves as an ingredient, and I've had multiple correspondences from folks that make tinctures out of the fresh flowers. Regardless of how you make the potion, it is well-known that Valerian does not work on everybody. Some folks are stimulated by it. However, most of us go to sleep under her influence.

Flowers white in the second year to a height of 5 feet or more. Some companies are slinging varieties of Valerian that they claim are medicinally superior to the standard European strain (which is what we grow). However, the standard strain is plenty good enough to do the job.

Valerian is a well-known and frequently used medicinal herb that has a long and proven history of efficacy. It is noted especially for its effect as a tranquilliser and nervine, particularly for those people suffering from nervous overstrain. Valerian has been shown to encourage sleep, improve sleep quality and reduce blood pressure. It is also used internally in the treatment of painful menstruation, cramps, hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome etc.

It should not be prescribed for patients with liver problems.

Externally, it is used to treat eczema, ulcers and minor injuries.

The active ingredients are called valepotriates, research has confirmed that these have a calming effect on agitated people, but are also a stimulant in cases of fatigue.

The roots of 2 year old plants are harvested in the autumn once the leaves have died down and are used fresh or dried. The fresh root is about 3 times as effective as roots dried at 40°, whilst temperatures above 82° destroy the active principle in the root.

Use with caution, can lead to addiction.

The plant yields about 1% of an essential oil from the roots.

Seed is edible. An essential oil from the leaves and root is used as a flavouring in ice cream, baked goods, condiments etc. It is especially important in apple flavours. The leaves can also be used as a condiment. The plant is used in moderation as a herbal tea.

It is used in perfumery to provide a 'mossy' aroma, though the scent is considered to be disagreeable by many people. The dried roots are also placed in linen cupboards and clothes drawers in order to scent the clothes.

The dried root attracts rats and cats, it can be used as a bait to lure them away from other areas.

An ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost. The plant can also be used to make a very good liquid plant feed. It attracts earthworms. The leaves are very rich in phosphorus.
PhosphorousAntispasmodic, Beverage, Carminative, Compost, Diuretic, Essential, Flavouring, Fragrance, Hypnotic, Insectiary, Nervine, Sedative, Stimulant
76Vervain, BlueVerbenaceaeVerbena hastata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:00other14Sow in the early spring or give 2 weeks cold conditioning by putting seeds in moist medium in a plastic bag in the fridge (not freezer) and then sow in warm soil. Germ in 2 to 4 weeks. Space plants 6 inches apart.

Seed: sow early spring in a greenhouse or cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Basal cuttings in early summer. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 - 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Succeeds in any moderately fertile well-drained but moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -20°c.

Plants prefer full sun to part shade and moist garden soils. Good drainage is not a necessary prerequisite. If there is a concern that the plant will spread, then keep it in a pot, or provide other suitable barriers.sun or partial shademoist200 eachUpright, creeping, self-seeding herbaceous perennial significant in medicine and ritual. Native to the Eastern US. Bright blue flowers on reddish-tinted plants, in multiple, long-lasting, handsome spikes.

Fresh or dried leaf, in tincture or tea, is a bitter remedy for treating indigestion, colds, and fevers. A good ingredient for home brew, it is also a traditional offering plant to honor the garden spirits. The plant will placate ills, real or imagined. Once imagined, ills become real, don't they? It's a quirk of the human condition that most of us would like to escape. Vervain helps you escape.

The leaves and roots are used medicinally; roots are more active than the leaves. The plant is used in the treatment of stomach aches, gravel, worms and scrofula. An infusion of the roots, leaves or seeds has been used in the early stages of fevers. A snuff made from the dried flowers has been used to treat nose bleeds.

Seed are edible cooked. The seed can be roasted and ground into a powder or used whole as a piñole. Pleasantly bitter, some of this bitterness can be removed by leeching the flour. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.
Antidepressant, Antiperiodic, Beverage, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Expectorant, Food, Ornamental, Tonic, Vermifuge, Vulnerary
79Witch HazelHamamelidaceaeHamamelis virginiana (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-20 00:00:00other30Seed is quite hard and germinates best after some cold conditioning. Fall planted seed may germinate in a few months in a cold greenhouse, or if planted in the shadehouse or outdoor nursery bed will germinate in the spring. To sow in spring, plant early enough so that the seed experiences at least 30 days of cold moist soils, or give 30 days cold moist stratification in the refrigerator before planting. All this said, the germplasm is viable and robust, and given the right conditions the seeds do germinate reliably. Germination usually occurs between 30 and 90 days after planting.

Seed can be very slow to germinate. It is best to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as it is mature but before it has dried on the plant) around the end of August and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may still take 18 months to germinate but will normally be quicker than stored seed which will require 2 months warm stratification then 1 month cold followed by another 2 weeks warm and then a further 4 months cold stratification. Scarification may also improve germination of stored seed. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Overwinter them in a greenhouse for their first winter and plant out in late spring.

Layering in early spring or autumn. Takes 12 months. Good percentage.

Softwood cuttings, summer in a frame.

Prefers a moist sandy loam in a sunny position, though it tolerates some shade. Prefers a rich well-drained soil. Dislikes dry limy soils but will succeed in a calcareous soil if it is moist. Prefers a position sheltered from cold drying winds in a neutral to slightly acid soil. A very hardy plant tolerating temperatures down to about -35°c.

Witch hazel is a widely used medicinal herb. The bark is harvested commercially from the wild in N. America. The twigs have been used in the past as dowsing rods for water divining. A slow growing shrub, it takes about 6 years to flower from seed. The flowers have a soft sweet perfume. This species is notably susceptible to honey fungus.
2190The witch hazel bush itself is full of surprises, flowering in midwinter and waiting to eject its seed until autumn. Plant prefers full sun to part shade and well-drained, slightly acid soils. It likes to be able to get its roots down into the aquifer, so it can often be found growing in dried up riparian zones or in moist but well-drained woodlands. It does fine as a permaculture bush/tree in city lots or on the farm.sun or partial shadewell drainedrich20 eachWoody perennial bush to small tree native to the US. A sturdy and handsome addition to the medicinal landscape, with a multi-stemmed habit.

The bright green leaves and young twigs, picked at the height of their glory and dried, produce the quintessential astringent. Water extracts or tinctures with low alcohol content and 10% glycerine thrown in to stabilize the tannins (see "Making Plant Medicine") prove to be very useful for treating hemorrhoids, herpes lesions, or any inflammatory conditions of the skin. Very nice way to tone up the waydown tissues after childbirth. Excellent post-operative swipe. Can be taken internally as well as used externally -- nontoxic.

For all you farmers market plant-seller type people, and nursery folks, a little tip -- the plants develop quicly into saleability and in our experience tend to be bestsellers. Trees on a pot will evoke remeniscent smiles and ready purchases among a significant cross section of your customers, including housepeople, herbalists, grandfolks and eager gardeners everywhere.

Witch hazel bark is a traditional herb of the North American Indians who used it to heal wounds, treat tumours, eye problems etc. A very astringent herb, it is commonly used in the West and is widely available from both herbalists and chemists. It is an important ingredient of proprietary eye drops, skin creams, ointments and skin tonics. It is widely used as an external application to bruises, sore muscles, varicose veins, haemorrhoids, sore nipples, inflammations etc.

Tannins in the bark are believed to be responsible for its astringent and haemostatic properties. Bottled witch hazel water is a steam distillate that does not contain the tannins from the shrub, this is less effective in its action than a tincture. The bark is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, colitis, dysentery, haemorrhoids, vaginal discharge, excessive menstruation, internal bleeding and prolapsed organs. Branches and twigs are harvested for the bark in the spring. An infusion of the leaves is used to reduce inflammations, treat piles, internal haemorrhages and eye inflammations. The leaves are harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use. A homeopathic remedy is made from fresh bark. It is used in the treatment of nosebleeds, piles and varicose veins.

Seed is eaten raw or cooked, and has an oily texture. The seeds are about the size of a barley grain and have a thick bony coat. A refreshing tea is made from the leaves and twigs.
Antiseptic, Astringent, Beverage, Cosmetic, Haemostatic, Homeopathy, Sedative, Tannin, Tonic, Wood
80Wood Betony; WoundwortLamiaceaeStachys officinalis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:00120 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant7Sow in the early spring. Standard greenhouse culture or direct seed. Barely cover seed, tamp well and keep evenly moist until germination, which occurs inb 1 to 3 weeks. Space 2 feet apart. Flowers from 2 to 3 feet tall.

Seed: sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots once they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer.

Division in spring. Very easy, the plant can be successfully divided at almost any time of the year. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.

Prefers a light moist neutral to acid soil in sun or light shade. A characteristic plant of healthy roadside banks on heavy soils. Hardy to at least -25°c. At one time bugle was often cultivated for its medicinal virtues, though it is now little used. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value. An excellent bee plant.
sun or partial shademoistclay100 eachHerbaceous perennial, highly adaptable to lowland sites as well as gardens at altitude. Native to Europe and Russia. This moisture-loving plant is a clumper, making a lush mound that flowers in multiple upright racemes red-purple.

The tea or tincture of fresh leaf helps relieve acute or chronic pain.

Note from Richo: A truly stellar herb. We had to really dig to come up with the seeds back in the day. One of the best fresh tincture herbs for treating addiction -- the taste is so good that it can in and of itself become addictive! But that's a good thing. Nervine tonic against stresses of living in the good ol' USA.

Wood betony was at one time commonly used as a medicinal plant in the treatment of a wide range of disorders, especially as a nervine and tonic for treating maladies of the head and as an external application to wounds. It also stimulates the digestive system and the liver, having an overall tonic effect upon the body. Wood betony is much less used nowadays, and more often forms part of a mixture of herbs.

The whole plant is collected when in flower in the summer and can be dried for later use.

It is taken in the treatment of 'frayed nerves', pre-menstrual complaints, poor memory and tension. It can be taken in combination with herbs such as comfrey, Symphytum officinale, and lime flowers, Tilia species, to treat sinus headaches and congestion. Wood betony can be taken on its own, or with yarrow, Achillea millefolium, to staunch nosebleeds. A pinch of the powdered herb will provoke violent sneezing and it has been used as part of a herbal snuff mixture in the treatment of headaches. A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh plant. It is used in the treatment of asthma and excessive perspiration.

A fine yellow dye is obtained from the leaves.

The leaves and flowering tops make a good tea substitute. Refreshing and aromatic, it has all the good qualities of tea without the negative ones.
Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antiseptic, Astringent, Beverage, Carminative, Cathartic, Cholagogue, Digestive, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Homeopathy, Insectiary, Nervine, Sedative, Sternutatory, Tonic, Vulnerary
282WormwoodAsteraceaeArtemisia absinthium (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:00100 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant180Seed: surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates within 2 - 26 weeks at 15°c[134]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. They can be planted out in the summer, or kept in pots in a cold frame for the winter and then planted out in the spring.

Cuttings: half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.

Division: in spring or autumn.

Succeeds in any soil, but best in poor, dry, warm soil, which also promotes longevity and aroma.
sun or partial shadewell drainedpoor0 eachInhibits growth of fennel, sage, caraway, anise, and most young plants, especially in wet years [14, 18, 20].

Good companion to carrots, protecting them from root fly[201].

Deerproof, attracts dogs.

Fresh or dried shoots repel insects and mice. An infusion discourages slugs and insects.

Valued especially for its tonic effect on the liver, gallbladder and digestive system, and for its vermicidal activity[4, 238, 254].

Extremely useful medicine for those with weak and under-active digestion. It increases stomach acid and bile production, improving digestion and the absorption of nutrients[254]. It also eases wind and bloating and, if taken regularly, helps the body return to full vitality after a prolonged illness[254].

The leaves and flowering shoots are anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitumor, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypnotic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge[4, 9, 21, 46, 165, 222, 254].

Harvested as it is coming into flower and then dried for later use[4]. Use with caution[21], the plant should be taken internally in small doses for short-term treatment only, preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner[238]. It should not be prescribed for children or pregnant women[238].

The extremely bitter leaves are chewed to stimulate the appetite[222]. The bitter taste on the tongue sets off a reflex action, stimulating stomach and other digestive secretions[254].

Leaves have been used with some success in the treatment of anorexia nervosa[244].

Applied externally to bruises and bites[238]. A warm compress has been used to ease sprains and strained muscles[257].

A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves[9]. It is used to stimulate bile and gastric juice production and to treat disorders of the liver and gall bladder[9].
Anthelmintic, Antiinflammatory, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Carminative, Cholagogue, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Flavouring, Fragrance, Homeopathy, Hypnotic, Insect Repellant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Strewing, Tonic, Vermifuge, Veterinary

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are in a particular family
Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, Alliaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Crassulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Ephedraceae, Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Myricaceae, Onagraceae, Papaveraceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saururaceae, Schisandraceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Valerianaceae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae
have a specific use
Adaptogen, Alterative, Analgesic, Anaphrodisiac, Anodyne, Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Anticholesterolemic, Antidepressant, Antidermatosic, Antiecchymotic, Antiemetic, Antifungal, Antiinflammatory, Antiperiodic, Antiphlogistic, Antipruritic, Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antiscorbutic, Antiscrophulatic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Antitussive, Aperient, Aphrodisiac, Appetizer, Aromatherapy, Astringent, Basketry, Beads, Beverage, Bitter, Bronchiodilator, Cancer, Cardiac, Cardiotonic, Carminative, Cathartic, Charcoal, Cholagogue, Compost, Cosmetic, Curdling agent, Demulcent, Deobstruent, Depurative, Detergent, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emmenagogue, Emollient, Essential, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Fibre, Flavouring, Food, Forage, Fragrance, Fuel, Fungicide, Galactogogue, Green manure, Haemostatic, Hedge, Hepatic, Homeopathy, Hypnotic, Hypoglycaemic, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Infertility, Insect Repellant, Insectiary, Insecticide, Kidney, Latex, Laxative, Lithontripic, Litmus, Mordant, Mouthwash, Mulch, Narcotic, Nervine, Nutritive, Oil, Oneirogen, Ophthalmic, Ornamental, Parasiticide, Pectoral, Pioneer, Pipes, Pollution, Poultice, Purgative, Refrigerant, Restorative, Rubefacient, Sacrificial, Salve, Seasoning, Sedative, Shelterbelt, Sialagogue, Skin, Soil stabilization, Sternutatory, Stimulant, Stings, Stomachic, Strewing, Stuffing, Sweetening, Tannin, TB, Tonic, Uterine tonic, Vasodilator, Vermifuge, Veterinary, Vulnerary, Warts, Waterproofing, Wood
are sensitive to a particular nutrient
Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Zinc
supplies a particular nutrient (dynamic accumulator)
Antioxidants, Boron, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Chromium, Copper, Fat, Fat: Omega-3, Fibre: Non-Soluble, Folate, Iodine, Iron, Lycopene, Magnesium, Manganese, Niacin, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Protein, Silica, Sulfur, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Zinc

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