Plant used for/Immunostimulant

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Immunostimulant
General immune system tonic.

For more information

Inventory

Here is EcoReality's seed inventory for plants that are used as Immunostimulant:

IDcommon namefamilylatin namedatequantityactiondays to germpropagationdays to maturityhabitatsundrainagesoilinventorynotesnutrientsneedsuse
9Astragalus; Huang-qiFabaceaeAstragalus membranaceus (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-28 00:00:0080 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant21Scarify seed lightly, and use rhizobium inoculant. Direct seed in early spring. Good cold soil germinator and a poor warm soil germinator. Germ in 3 to 10 days. Thin to 6 inches apart.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing - but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours.

Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 - 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh.

As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
1460Plant is a sturdy survivor, and prefers full sun, average soil, and good drainage.

Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Prefers a sandy slightly alkaline soil. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c.

Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.
full sunwell drainedsandy50 eachTaprooted herbaceous perennial native to China.

King of tonic herbs. It is an anabolic immunostimulant, that may be dried and ground up, then used for making tea, decoction, or tincture. As a fresh root, may be boiled in soup to release its life-supportive essence.

Plants flower yellow-white to 4 feet tall.

Huang Qi is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs.

The root is a sweet tonic herb that stimulates the immune system and many organs of the body, whilst lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels. It is particularly suited to young, physically active people, increasing stamina and endurance and improving resistance to the cold - indeed for younger people it is perhaps superior to ginseng in this respect.

Huang Qi is used especially for treatment of the kidneys and also to avoid senility. The plant is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Atractylodes macrocephala and Ledebouriella seseloides.

The root contains a number of bio-active constituents including saponins and isoflavonoids.

It is used in the treatment of cancer, prolapse of the uterus or anus, abscesses and chronic ulcers, chronic nephritis with oedema and proteinuria. Recent research in the West has shown that the root can increase the production of interferon and macrophages and thus help restore normal immune function in cancer patients. Patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy recover faster and live longer if given Huang Qi concurrently.

The root of 4 year old plants is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.
NitrogenAdaptogen, Antibacterial, Cancer, Cardiotonic, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hypoglycaemic, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Pectoral, Tonic, Uterine tonic, Vasodilator
24Echinacea; Purple ConeflowerAsteraceaeEchinacea purpurea (dg fo pf wp)2013-05-22 00:00:0060 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow seed in the early spring in flats outdoors or in the greenhouse, and transplant seedlings out to the garden or field in mid-spring (middle of May in our area). Starting earlier, and transplanting twice into progressively bigger containers will result in a much better rooted transplant, which will probably flower in the first year. It is fairly easy to seed this plant directly in the garden or field. Sow the seed shallowly in the early to mid-spring. Keep moist. Once the plants are up, you must stay on top of the weeds, and thin to 1 foot spacing after the second set of leaves has formed. E. purpurea likes full sun, plenty of water, and rich, limey soil. This is the species best suited to varied growing conditions, whether coastal or mountain, east or west. It is easy to grow, and produces on the average 1/2 pound of fresh root by the dormant period following the second year of growth. Plant 1 foot apart. Flowers 3 to 4 feet tall.Does well in pots.full sunmoist200 eachHardy to all temperate zones.

Herbaceous perennial prairie dweller. Originally native to a wide band stretching from Michigan south to Louisiana, then west to Texas and Oklahoma, but currently uncommon in the wild. Widely cultivated. Does well in pots. Our strain was derived from a rare wild collection and has been successfully and profitably cultivated for years here in the Williams Valley of Southern Oregon. It has not been intentionally modified or hybridized in any way from the original source, and therefore contains the rich spectrum of active chemicals found in the original wild plant.

Medical activity as per E. angustifolia.

On a plant-protection note, please consider that growing and using E. purpurea also takes the strain off wild populations of E. angustifolia.

Some discussion on using Echinacea in herbal therapy:

I find personally that the herb works best as a tincture of the fresh root, used at first sign of the common cold, flu, or indeed any kind of infection. The public wisdom is that Echinacea stimulates the immune system, and that this is the mode of action. The herb almost certainly stimulates the activity of the macrophages and killer T cells as it speeds the bodie's recognition of antigens. According to my teacher (may he rest in peace) Michael Moore, who seemed to have a knack for recognizing these things, the use of Echinacea in the early stages of (any) infection speeds the body response by 24 hours. That means that the use of Echinacea should shorten the period of infection (ie how long you have a cold) by 24 hours. Or, if used quickly enough and in large enough doses, it may keep you from getting sick. "Ward off contagion," as the ancients used to say. A headcold is the inflammation of the sinus membrane -- if you can reduce that inflammation with Echinacea (and snort a little dilute goldenseal tincture, too, for that matter) then you can convince yourself, perhaps, that you don't have a cold at all. Or reduce the symptoms, anyway. Increase the comfort factor.

Regarding the "hyaluronidase effect," Echinacea seems to clarify the interstitial fluids, softening the cartilage, helping remove metabolic waste products by way of the lymph. Echinacea can also be used for treating stretched ligaments and inflamed joints (tendonitis, for example). Generally in this case a high dosage is prescribed, and the use of the joint in question is limited, and the pain and inflammation is reduced.

As for using Echinacea if you have Aids or are HIV positive or suffer from any other autoimmune disease, then be careful, as Echinacea can exaggerate acute autoimmune episodes.

Echinacea tincture can be mixed with ground pharmaceutical grade charcoal and clay and applied to insect stings to help resolve them more quickly. This is a usage well documented in the Native American ethnologies. And, you can use it for treating brown recluse bites -- it will help limit erosion of healthy tissue and necrosis.
Immunostimulant
2Elderberry, Black; Black Elder; Elder BerryCaprifoliaceaeSambucus nigra (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-23 00:00:00182 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSoak berries overnight, smash them, and remove the seeds. Sow in outdoor conditions, in pots or flats, and expect germination in the spring. Alternatively, you may wish to remove the seeds from the fruits and then store the seeds in moist medium in a sealed plastic bag or jar in the refrigerator (not the freezer) for 90 days, then remove from fridge and sow. The best conditions for germination are cool, moist shade. We find that this method is pretty reliable. Elderberries will not grow properly in sterile soil. Sow seeds in very rich and composty soil medium. The breakdown of fungi in the soil will produce gibberellic acid, a growth hormone which is helpful for germination. Once germinated, the seedling grows very rapidly into a handsome bush or small tree. Grow out in a shaded place in pots for a year before transplanting to final location.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, when it should germinate in early spring. Stored seed can be sown in the spring in a cold frame but will probably germinate better if it is given 2 months warm followed by 2 months cold stratification first. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If good growth is made, the young plants can be placed in their permanent positions during the early summer. Otherwise, either put them in a sheltered nursery bed, or keep them in their pots in a sheltered position and plant them out in spring of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame.

Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 15 - 20cm with a heel, late autumn in a frame or a sheltered outdoor bed[78].

Division of suckers in the dormant season.

A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and situations, growing well on chalk, but prefers a moist loamy soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates some shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Tolerates atmospheric pollution and coastal situations.

The elder is very occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties though most of these have been developed for their ornamental value. The sub-species S. nigra alba has white/green fruits that are nicer than the type species and are quite nice raw.

The elder also has a very long history of folk use, both medicinally and for a wide range of other uses. All in all it is a very valuable plant to have in the garden. The leaves often begin to open as early as January and are fully open in April. The leaves fall in October/November in exposed sites, later in sheltered positions. Young stems can be killed by late frosts but they are soon replaced from the ground level.

Very tolerant of pruning, plants can be cut back to ground level and will regrow from the base.

The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly pleasant for it has fishy undertones, but from a distance its musky scent is appealing.

Very resistant to the predations of rabbits. The flowers are very attractive to insects. The fruit is very attractive to birds and this can draw them away from other cultivated fruits.

The elder is an early colonizer of derelict land, the seed arriving in the defecations of birds and mammals. It is a very good pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
127It's probably a good idea to grow 3 trees for pollination purposes, although we have certainly seen good crops of fruit from a single tree grown in isolation. Elderberries are best placed as an understory to a higher tree canopy. Will also grow in full sun if the roots are kept cool and moist.sun or partial shademoistloam50 eachPerennial, deciduous, multistemmed bush to small tree native to Europe. Wild form. This is the most tried-and-true species for medicinal use, and the berries are very tasty, and about twice as big as the berries of other species. Elderberry berries are rich in anthocyanins, bioflavonoids, vitamins and antioxidants.

The syrup, tincture or glycerite of the berries is excellent for treating the common cold and for overall increase in immunity. The fresh green leaves may be infused in olive oil to make an emollient embrocation for treating sunburn, rough skin, age spots, and/or diaper rash (normally individuals will not have both age spots and diaper rash, but it can happen). Truly, all parts of the plant may be used in herbal medicine, and this is much expanded upon in my book "Making Plant Medicine."

Flowers generally appear in year 3. Flowers turn rapidly into heavy clusters of fruits.

Elder has a very long history of household use as a medicinal herb and is also much used by herbalists. The plant has been called 'the medicine chest of country people'.

The flowers are the main part used in modern herbalism, though all parts of the plant have been used at times. The inner bark is collected from young trees in the autumn and is best sun-dried. It is diuretic, a strong purgative and in large doses emetic. It is used in the treatment of constipation and arthritic conditions.

An emollient ointment is made from the green inner bark.

The leaves can be used both fresh or dry. For drying, they are harvested in periods of fine weather during June and July. The leaves are purgative, but are more nauseous than the bark. They are also diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and haemostatic.

The juice is said to be a good treatment for inflamed eyes. An ointment made from the leaves is emollient and is used in the treatment of bruises, sprains, chilblains, wounds etc.

The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water'. The flowers can be preserved with salt to make them available for distillation later in the season. The water is mildly astringent and a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions. The dried flowers are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, galactogogue and pectoral. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes. The infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser.

Externally, the flowers are used in poultices to ease pain and abate inflammation. Used as an ointment, it treats chilblains, burns, wounds, scalds etc. The fruit is depurative, weakly diaphoretic and gently laxative. A tea made from the dried berries is said to be a good remedy for colic and diarrhoea.

The fruit is widely used for making wines, preserves etc., and these are said to retain the medicinal properties of the fruit. The pith of young stems is used in treating burns and scalds.

The root is no longer used in herbal medicine but it formerly had a high reputation as an emetic and purgative that was very effective against dropsy.

A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh inner bark of young branches. It relieves asthmatic symptoms and spurious croup in children.

The plant is a valuable addition to the compost heap, its flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator and the roots of the plant improve fermentation of the compost heap when growing nearby.

The leaves are used as an insect repellent, very effective when rubbed on the skin though they do impart their own unique fragrance. They can be powdered and placed amongst plants to act as a deterrent, or made into a spray when they act as an insecticide. This is prepared by boiling 3 - 4 handfuls of leaves in a litre of water, then straining and allowing to cool before applying. Effective against many insects, it also treats various fungal infections such as leaf rot and powdery mildew. The dried flowering shoots are used to repel insects, rodents etc.

The flowers are used in skin lotions, oils and ointments. Tolerant of salt-laden gales, this species can be grown as a shelter hedge in exposed maritime areas, it is rather bare in the winter though.

This is an excellent pioneer species to use when re-establishing woodlands. It is very tough and wind-resistant, grows quickly and provides shelter for longer-lived and taller woodland species to establish. It will generally maintain itself in the developing woodland, though usually in the sunnier positions.

A dye is obtained from the fruit and the bark. The bark of older branches and the root have been used as an ingredient in dyeing black. A green dye is obtained from the leaves when alum is used as a mordant. The berries yield various shades of blue and purple dyes. They have also been used as a hair dye, turning the hair black.

The blue colouring matter from the fruit can be used as a litmus to test if something is acid or alkaline. It turns green in an alkaline solution and red in an acid solution.

The pith in the stems of young branches pushes out easily and the hollow stems thus made have been used as pipes for blowing air into a fire. They can also be made into musical instruments. The pith of the wood is used for making microscope slides and also for treating burns and scalds. The mature wood is white and fine-grained. It is easily cut and polishes well. Valued highly by carpenters, it has many used, for making skewers, mathematical instruments, toys etc.

Fruit eaten raw or cooked. The flavour of the raw fruit is not acceptable to many tastes, though when cooked it makes delicious jams, preserves, pies and so forth. It can be used fresh or dried, the dried fruit being less bitter. The fruit is used to add flavour and colour to preserves, jams, pies, sauces, chutneys etc, it is also often used to make wine.

The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in large clusters. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Flowers eaten raw or cooked. They can also be dried for later use. The flowers are crisp and somewhat juicy, they have an aromatic smell and flavour and are delicious raw as a refreshing snack on a summers day, though look out for the insects. The flowers are used to add a muscatel flavour to stewed fruits, jellies and jams (especially gooseberry jam). They are often used to make a sparkling wine.

A sweet tea is made from the dried flowers. The leaves are used to impart a green colouring to oils and fats.
Antiinflammatory, Aperient, Beverage, Compost, Cosmetic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emollient, Expectorant, Food, Forage, Fungicide, Galactogogue, Haemostatic, Hedge, Immunostimulant, Insect Repellant, Insecticide, Laxative, Litmus, Ophthalmic, Pioneer, Pipes, Purgative, Salve, Stimulant, Wood
82Pumpkin, Styrian Hull-lessCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-01 00:00:0018 each starts in outdoor soiltransplantPrepare the hill or the bed with plenty of aged manure or compost, direct-seed the seeds, and choose the three best seedlings from the hill (or if row cropping, thin to 1 plant every 3 feet). Keep weeded and watered. Vines will soon become self-mulching.90full sunrich30 eachThis is a unique pumpkin cultivar developed in the provice of Styria in Austria.

We have been thinking about the challenge of finding ways that people can grow protein-rich foods in temperated gardens with high yield for the effort and without the need for a lot of processing. Our search lead us eventually to the naked seeded pumpkin (so-called hull-less or Styrian pumpkins). These pumpkins have a seed that is encased only in a thin membrane, which may be consumed along with the seed. The seeds can be lightly toasted with a little salt or eaten raw and uncooked.

This is a convenient protein source, a good snack or addition to smoothies or salads, rich in unsaturated fat, an immune tonic and tonic to the reproductive organs of both females and males. Consumption of the seed is a specific for treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as prostate cancer.

These pumpkins are all about the seeds -- the flesh itself is low sugar and not particularly tasty. They make good goat food. So back to being after the seeds, which are a great protein source, we obtained some nice open-pollinated seed of this plant and grew a large patch of it this year. The plant turned out to be problem-free, fast-growing and a rewardingly prolific producer of the large fruits.

Harvest and processing: Harvest pumpkins after first frost, split open and scoop out seeds and spaghetti onto a table screen. Using your hands and a garden hose, work the mash and water it down until the seeds are free of spaghetti. Scoop up the seeds and air dry them on screens, stirring several times per day, until the seeds are dry and stable. Store in paper bags.
PotassiumAnthelmintic, Food, Forage, Immunostimulant, Oil, Veterinary
62Rhodiola, Alpine; Golden Root; Rose RootCrassulaceaeRhodiola rosea (dg fo pf wp)42Germination benefits greatly from cold conditioning/stratification, possibly ~ 6 weeks at 5 Celcius or colder, though typically seed is sown on moist sterilized potting soil (in plugtrays - 72 cell trays are popular) during the winter and placed outside for two months or more, preferably with snow cover. Seeds can be covered lightly or pressed into the soil surface, but should not be buried too deeply or allowed to dry out completely. In Canada, sprouts appear in late April or early May, after daytime temperatures increase, and can withstand significant frosts. Alternatively, strategies which utilize or mimic ethylene gas may also promote germination. Young seedlings grow slowly, and do better in a location semi-sheltered from sun and wind. They grow slowly, suffering both when the soil remains saturated with moisture for extended periods and when the soil becomes very dry. Thus a balance between overwatering and drought conditions should be maintained. Mild fertilization may be beneficial, but is not required. After a month or two, when a stalk is sent up from the rosette of seed leaves, seedlings can be exposed to more sun to maximize growth. Seedlings can be transplanted in their first year, but can also be kept in plugtrays for a year or two to minimize weeding in the field. Excellent transplant survival rates can be achieved any time the ground is not frozen, even with dormant (leafless) plugs in the fall. Eventually plant growth will suffer if seedlings are not planted out. -- GORDON STEINRATHS127Ideal growing site components include full or almost full sun, good drainage during the spring runoff and some shelter from the wind. While the latter is not imperitive, it will help conserve soil moisture and enhance growth. R. rosea is very drought tolerant and does not require irrigation, however, it will benefit from regular watering - natural or otherwise. Field spacing depends on the chosen weed control system, especially if plastic mulch is used. One foot in-row spacing, with eight-inch between-row spacing of plants is an average for current trials, giving three to four rows of plants per (mulched) bed. Path spacing between beds will vary with the weeding regime, or a solid (pathless) planting may be prefered.sun or partial shademoist100 eachPerennial, fleshy succulent. Rhodiola rosea is quite variable depending on origin. This seed originated from Austria and Germany, and the photo is characteristic of its form. The dried roots are rose-scented, loaded with immune stimulating glycosides (e.g. rosavin, rosin). Uplifting adaptogenic properties similar to Eleuthero Ginseng. Rhodiola does best at elevation and in the North.

Time to harvest can be as short as three growing seasons, when roots can attain 0.75% rosavin content or better, though four to five year's growth will provide greater root biomass and a rosavin content of 1% or more. The roots tend to deteriorate from within as they age, harboring patches of necrotic tissue (or "heartrot") to which they will eventually succumb. The upshot is that - while there may be 75-year old plants in the wild - the maximum age of a commercial field may only be six or seven years. The dynamics of root attrition due to disease are not yet understood, and may differ with various cultivars and soil conditions. Initial indications are that fertilization is not benificial under normal conditions.

R. rosea is an adaptable species, and as such appears to do well in a variety of soil types, from rocky gravel through heavy clay to silty, sandy and peaty loam soil types. The relationship between soil pH and rosavin levels is presently poorly understood, but may favor acidity - ? As a circumpolar species, Rhodiola does well at high latitudes, where its production of rosavins assists survival under harsh conditions. How it performs in warmer climates will be an interesting experiment.
Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
64Rhodiola, Russian; Golden Root; Rose RootCrassulaceaeRhodiola rosea (dg fo pf wp)42Germination benefits greatly from cold conditioning/stratification, possibly ~ 6 weeks at 5 Celcius or colder, though typically seed is sown on moist sterilized potting soil (in plugtrays - 72 cell trays are popular) during the winter and placed outside for two months or more, preferably with snow cover. Seeds can be covered lightly or pressed into the soil surface, but should not be buried too deeply or allowed to dry out completely. In Canada, sprouts appear in late April or early May, after daytime temperatures increase, and can withstand significant frosts. Alternatively, strategies which utilize or mimic ethylene gas may also promote germination. Young seedlings grow slowly, and do better in a location semi-sheltered from sun and wind. They grow slowly, suffering both when the soil remains saturated with moisture for extended periods and when the soil becomes very dry. Thus a balance between overwatering and drought conditions should be maintained. Mild fertilization may be beneficial, but is not required. After a month or two, when a stalk is sent up from the rosette of seed leaves, seedlings can be exposed to more sun to maximize growth. Seedlings can be transplanted in their first year, but can also be kept in plugtrays for a year or two to minimize weeding in the field. Excellent transplant survival rates can be achieved any time the ground is not frozen, even with dormant (leafless) plugs in the fall. Eventually plant growth will suffer if seedlings are not planted out. -- GORDON STEINRATHS127Ideal growing site components include full or almost full sun, good drainage during the spring runoff and some shelter from the wind. While the latter is not imperitive, it will help conserve soil moisture and enhance growth. R. rosea is very drought tolerant and does not require irrigation, however, it will benefit from regular watering - natural or otherwise. Field spacing depends on the chosen weed control system, especially if plastic mulch is used. One foot in-row spacing, with eight-inch between-row spacing of plants is an average for current trials, giving three to four rows of plants per (mulched) bed. Path spacing between beds will vary with the weeding regime, or a solid (pathless) planting may be prefered.sun or partial shademoist100 eachPerennial, fleshy succulent. Rhodiola rosea is quite variable depending on location. This seed was collected in Russia. The dried roots are rose-scented, loaded with immune stimulating glycosides (e.g. rosavin, rosin). Uplifting adaptogenic properties similar to Eleuthero Ginseng. Prefers limey soil or rock garden. Not very heat tolerant. Flowers to 10 inches.

Time to harvest can be as short as three growing seasons, when roots can attain 0.75% rosavin content or better, though four to five year's growth will provide greater root biomass and a rosavin content of 1% or more. The roots tend to deteriorate from within as they age, harboring patches of necrotic tissue (or "heartrot") to which they will eventually succumb. The upshot is that - while there may be 75-year old plants in the wild - the maximum age of a commercial field may only be six or seven years. The dynamics of root attrition due to disease are not yet understood, and may differ with various cultivars and soil conditions. Initial indications are that fertilization is not benificial under normal conditions.

R. rosea is an adaptable species, and as such appears to do well in a variety of soil types, from rocky gravel through heavy clay to silty, sandy and peaty loam soil types. The relationship between soil pH and rosavin levels is presently poorly understood, but may favor acidity - ? As a circumpolar species, Rhodiola does well at high latitudes, where its production of rosavins assists survival under harsh conditions. How it performs in warmer climates will be an interesting experiment.
Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
63Rhodiola, Scandanavian; Golden Root; Rose RootCrassulaceaeRhodiola rosea (dg fo pf wp)42Germination benefits greatly from cold conditioning/stratification, possibly ~ 6 weeks at 5 Celcius or colder, though typically seed is sown on moist sterilized potting soil (in plugtrays - 72 cell trays are popular) during the winter and placed outside for two months or more, preferably with snow cover. Seeds can be covered lightly or pressed into the soil surface, but should not be buried too deeply or allowed to dry out completely. In Canada, sprouts appear in late April or early May, after daytime temperatures increase, and can withstand significant frosts. Alternatively, strategies which utilize or mimic ethylene gas may also promote germination. Young seedlings grow slowly, and do better in a location semi-sheltered from sun and wind. They grow slowly, suffering both when the soil remains saturated with moisture for extended periods and when the soil becomes very dry. Thus a balance between overwatering and drought conditions should be maintained. Mild fertilization may be beneficial, but is not required. After a month or two, when a stalk is sent up from the rosette of seed leaves, seedlings can be exposed to more sun to maximize growth. Seedlings can be transplanted in their first year, but can also be kept in plugtrays for a year or two to minimize weeding in the field. Excellent transplant survival rates can be achieved any time the ground is not frozen, even with dormant (leafless) plugs in the fall. Eventually plant growth will suffer if seedlings are not planted out. -- GORDON STEINRATHS127Ideal growing site components include full or almost full sun, good drainage during the spring runoff and some shelter from the wind. While the latter is not imperitive, it will help conserve soil moisture and enhance growth. R. rosea is very drought tolerant and does not require irrigation, however, it will benefit from regular watering - natural or otherwise. Field spacing depends on the chosen weed control system, especially if plastic mulch is used. One foot in-row spacing, with eight-inch between-row spacing of plants is an average for current trials, giving three to four rows of plants per (mulched) bed. Path spacing between beds will vary with the weeding regime, or a solid (pathless) planting may be prefered.sun or partial shademoist100 eachPerennial, fleshy succulent. Rhodiola rosea is quite variable depending on origin. This seed originated from Norway.The photo is characteristic of its form. The dried roots are rose-scented, loaded with immune stimulating glycosides (e.g. rosavin, rosin). Uplifting adaptogenic properties similar to Eleuthero Ginseng. These plants are not very heat tolerant and will do best at elevation and in the north.

Time to harvest can be as short as three growing seasons, when roots can attain 0.75% rosavin content or better, though four to five year's growth will provide greater root biomass and a rosavin content of 1% or more. The roots tend to deteriorate from within as they age, harboring patches of necrotic tissue (or "heartrot") to which they will eventually succumb. The upshot is that - while there may be 75-year old plants in the wild - the maximum age of a commercial field may only be six or seven years. The dynamics of root attrition due to disease are not yet understood, and may differ with various cultivars and soil conditions. Initial indications are that fertilization is not benificial under normal conditions.

R. rosea is an adaptable species, and as such appears to do well in a variety of soil types, from rocky gravel through heavy clay to silty, sandy and peaty loam soil types. The relationship between soil pH and rosavin levels is presently poorly understood, but may favor acidity - ? As a circumpolar species, Rhodiola does well at high latitudes, where its production of rosavins assists survival under harsh conditions. How it performs in warmer climates will be an interesting experiment.
Adaptogen, Antidepressant, Immunostimulant
67Sea BuckthornElaeagnaceaeHippophae rhamnoides (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-30 00:00:0032 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant14Scarify seeds and sow in warm, sandy soil. Germination is in 2 weeks or so -- a dependable and fun germinator. Space 10 or more feet apart.20 eachDioecious, spiny shrub to small tree. Native to temperate Europe and Asia. All zones. The tree, even when young and bush-like, is excellent in hedgerows and shelterbelts. The fruit juice is loaded with vitamins, amino acids and antioxidants; improves immune response. Oil of seeds is an effective sunblock.NitrogenFood, Immunostimulant

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Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, Alliaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Crassulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Ephedraceae, Ericaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Myricaceae, Onagraceae, Papaveraceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saururaceae, Schisandraceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Valerianaceae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae
have a specific use
Adaptogen, Alterative, Analgesic, Anaphrodisiac, Anodyne, Anthelmintic, Antibacterial, Anticholesterolemic, Antidepressant, Antidermatosic, Antidote, Antiecchymotic, Antiemetic, Antifungal, Antiinflammatory, Antiperiodic, Antiphlogistic, Antipruritic, Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antiscorbutic, Antiscrophulatic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Antitussive, Aperient, Aphrodisiac, Appetizer, Aromatherapy, Astringent, Basketry, Beads, Beverage, Bitter, Bronchiodilator, Cancer, Cardiac, Cardiotonic, Carminative, Cathartic, Charcoal, Cholagogue, Compost, Contraceptive, Cosmetic, Curdling agent, Demulcent, Deobstruent, Depurative, Detergent, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emmenagogue, Emollient, Essential, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Fibre, Flavouring, Food, Forage, Fragrance, Fuel, Fungicide, Galactogogue, Green manure, Haemostatic, Hedge, Hepatic, Homeopathy, Hypnotic, Hypoglycaemic, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Infertility, Insect Repellant, Insectiary, Insecticide, Kidney, Latex, Laxative, Lithontripic, Litmus, Mordant, Mouthwash, Mulch, Narcotic, Nervine, Nutritive, Oil, Oneirogen, Ophthalmic, Ornamental, Parasiticide, Pectoral, Pioneer, Pipes, Pollution, Poultice, Purgative, Refrigerant, Restorative, Rubefacient, Sacrificial, Salve, Seasoning, Sedative, Shelterbelt, Sialagogue, Skin, Soil stabilization, Sternutatory, Stimulant, Stings, Stomachic, Strewing, Stuffing, Sweetening, Tannin, TB, Tonic, Uterine tonic, Vasodilator, Vermifuge, Veterinary, Vulnerary, Warts, Waterproofing, Wood
are sensitive to a particular nutrient
Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Zinc
supplies a particular nutrient (dynamic accumulator)
Antioxidants, Boron, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Chromium, Copper, Fat, Fat: Omega-3, Fibre: Non-Soluble, Folate, Iodine, Iron, Lycopene, Magnesium, Manganese, Niacin, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Protein, Silica, Sulfur, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Zinc

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