Plant used for/Forage

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Forage
Used to feed animals.

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Inventory

Here is EcoReality's seed inventory for plants that are used as Forage:

IDcommon namefamilylatin namedatequantityactiondays to germpropagationdays to maturityhabitatsundrainagesoilinventorynotesnutrientsneedsuse
259AlfalfaFabaceaeMedicago sativa (dg fo pf wp)Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ. The seed can also be sown in situ in autumn. Seed can be obtained that has been inoculated with Rhizobium bacteria, enabling the plant to succeed in soils where the bacteria is not already present. Alfalfa can adapt to a wide range of climatic conditions from cold temperate to warm sub-tropical, but thrives best on a rich, friable, well-drained loamy soil with loose topsoil supplied with lime. It does not tolerate waterlogging and fails to grow on acid soils. Grows well on light soils. Alfalfa is a very deep rooting plant, bringing up nutrients from deep in the soil and making them available for other plants with shallower root systems. It is a good companion plant for growing near fruit trees and grape vines so long as it is in a reasonably sunny position, but it does not grow well with onions or other members of the Allium genus.Hardy to zone 5. In flower June to July. Seeds ripen July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, lepidoptera, self. Self-fertile.partial shadewell drainedpoor0 eachLeaves and young shoots - raw or cooked. The leaves can also be dried for later use. The seed is commonly sprouted which is added to salads, used in sandwiches etc or cooked in soups. The seed is soaked in warm water for 12 hours, then kept moist in a container in a warm place to sprout. It is ready in about 4 - 6 days. The seeds can also be ground into a powder and used as a mush, or mixed with cereal flours for making a nutritionally improved bread etc. An appetite-stimulating tea is made from the leaves.

Alfalfa leaves, either fresh or dried, have traditionally been used as a nutritive tonic to stimulate the appetite and promote weight gain. The plant has an oestrogenic action and could prove useful in treating problems related to menstruation and the menopause. The plant is grown commercially as a source of chlorophyll and carotene, both of which have proven health benefits. The leaves also contain the anti-oxidant tricin. The root is febrifuge and is also prescribed in cases of highly coloured urine. Extracts of the plant are antibacterial. Used for asthma, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders (anti-ulcer).

Nitrogen, Protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin KAnodyne, Antibacterial, Antiscorbutic, Aperient, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Febrifuge, Food, Forage, Haemostatic, Mulch, Nutritive, Oil, Stimulant, Tonic
100Beet, Early Wonder Tall TopChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-03 00:00:00150 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5Direct sow late April to mid-July. Beets will not produce roots if planted when the soil is too cold. Seeds will germinate in 5-12 days, depending on soil temperature. Optimal soil temperature: 10-26°C (50-80°F).

Sow 1cm (½") deep, 5-10cm (2-4") apart in rows 30-45cm (12-18") apart.

In optimum conditions at least 75% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 600-1M seeds, per acre: 436M seeds.
55Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. For uniformly sized beets, thin carefully to 7-15cm (3-6") apart when seedlings are 5cm (2") tall. Eat thinned plants, roots and all. root size is controlled by spacing and variety.sun or partial shademoistrich100 gramsOur most popular beet variety! Early Wonder Tall Top beets adapt to all seasons but are especially good in early spring with quick growth in chilly soils. Early wonder tall top produce tall, tasty green leaves with red stems and slightly flattened roots thst are wonderful for eating. Early Wonder Tall Top beets makes a good variety for general table use.

Beets are incredibly healthy eating. Both the roots and the leaves are an excellent source of antioxidants, minerals, and vitamin C. They also contain betaine, a compound that is essential for cardiovascular health. Eat them raw, cooked, pickled - you can even make beet chips!

Harvest at any size, but for the best flavour, pull the beets as soon as they have reached full-size. Eat the greens too. Store in the ground, or in moist peat or sand just above freezing.

If beets have black cankers in the roots, soil may need more boron. Dissolve 1 tablespoon of borax to 4L (8½ US pints) of water, and spread evenly over 9m² (100 sq ft) of soil. Do not overapply at a heavier rate. Circular lesions with a purple halo on the leaf is cercospera leaf spot. Prevent by rotation and sanitation. Leaf miner maggots cause blistered grey tunnels in leaves. Just squish them inside the leaf. Floating row cover carefully applied will prevent the leaf miner fly from laying its eggs.

BoronDye, Food, Forage
84Beet, SugarChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-28 00:00:00148 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5800 eachThe leaves are excellent for eating. The long, white roots are very high in sugar. They are good for the table, boiled or baked and mashed, or they can be boiled down in water to make sugar. Or, you can munch them right in the garden, like the picture shows. Super duper sweet, no funny aftertaste, and quite buzzy. Yum!Food, Forage, Sweetening
247Buckwheat, MedawaskaPolygonaceaeFagopyrum vulgare (dg fo pf wp)5Seed - sow from the middle of spring to early summer in situ. The seed usually germinates in 5 days[115]. The earlier sowings are for a seed or leaf crop whilst the later sowings are used mainly for leaf crops or green manure.Cultivated Beds;full sunwell drained930 eachFood, Forage, Mulch
6Camelina; Gold of Pleasure; Wild Flax; German Sesame; Siberian OilseedBrassicaceaeCamelina sativa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-12 00:00:0050% germPrepare a weed-free seedbed in spring. Sprinkle the seed on the surface of the bed and press in. Keep evenly moist until germination. Harvest when the seed is fully mature and hard.Easy to grow and high yielding, even on marginal land. Requires little or no input of fertilizer or water to achieve a good crop. Excellent choice for dryland farming and as a rotation crop for wheat or other grains.full sundrought tolerantpoor10 eachHardiness: All zones. Annual native to Northern Europe.

An ancient oilseed crop that is experiencing a resurgence of popularity due to three major factors:

1) easy to grow and high yielding, even on marginal land. Requires little or no input of fertilizer or water to achieve a good crop. Excellent choice for dryland farming and as a rotation crop for wheat or other grains.

2) a heat stabile and deliciously edible oil that has excellent shelf life can be cold pressed from the seeds. Very high in unsaturated fatty acids, the oil is loaded with health promoting Omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin E. The oil is a delicious raw condiment, and is a stabile and tasty cooking oil. The seeds themselves are excellent for feeding to poultry, giving exceptional egg production. Other stock can benefit from the feed value of this seed, as well.

3) this is one of the best crops for producing biodiesel. The plant is hardy to the temperate north and gives high yields of clean burning fuel. Interestingly, there are efforts afoot to limit the distribution of Camelina seed, and producers have worked out complex multi-level contracts aimed at cornering the market and fueling corporations instead of promoting self-sufficiency. We take issue with such things.

The plant has been used by humans for at least 4,000 years (remains in Switzerland date it to the Neolithic). Making this little weedy wonder into an exclusive botanical in modern times is not moving in the direction of cooperation. We offer the seed up to the public domain, and hope that many of you will grow it experimentally, and work your clean little patches up into commercially viable fields within a few years.

Camelina gives fast turnaround and high yield per input. The photo is of our recent germ test of this seed.

This species is a bad companion plant, depressing the growth of nearby plants. It has become a noxious weed of cultivated fields in some of the areas into which it has been introduced.

An oil from the seed is used as a luminant and as an emollient for softening the skin. A fibre is obtained from the stems. The stems are used for making brooms.
Fat, Fat: Omega-3Emollient, Fibre, Food, Forage, Fuel, Oil
2Elderberry, Black; Black Elder; Elder BerryCaprifoliaceaeSambucus nigra (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-23 00:00:00182 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSoak berries overnight, smash them, and remove the seeds. Sow in outdoor conditions, in pots or flats, and expect germination in the spring. Alternatively, you may wish to remove the seeds from the fruits and then store the seeds in moist medium in a sealed plastic bag or jar in the refrigerator (not the freezer) for 90 days, then remove from fridge and sow. The best conditions for germination are cool, moist shade. We find that this method is pretty reliable. Elderberries will not grow properly in sterile soil. Sow seeds in very rich and composty soil medium. The breakdown of fungi in the soil will produce gibberellic acid, a growth hormone which is helpful for germination. Once germinated, the seedling grows very rapidly into a handsome bush or small tree. Grow out in a shaded place in pots for a year before transplanting to final location.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, when it should germinate in early spring. Stored seed can be sown in the spring in a cold frame but will probably germinate better if it is given 2 months warm followed by 2 months cold stratification first. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If good growth is made, the young plants can be placed in their permanent positions during the early summer. Otherwise, either put them in a sheltered nursery bed, or keep them in their pots in a sheltered position and plant them out in spring of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame.

Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 15 - 20cm with a heel, late autumn in a frame or a sheltered outdoor bed[78].

Division of suckers in the dormant season.

A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and situations, growing well on chalk, but prefers a moist loamy soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates some shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Tolerates atmospheric pollution and coastal situations.

The elder is very occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties though most of these have been developed for their ornamental value. The sub-species S. nigra alba has white/green fruits that are nicer than the type species and are quite nice raw.

The elder also has a very long history of folk use, both medicinally and for a wide range of other uses. All in all it is a very valuable plant to have in the garden. The leaves often begin to open as early as January and are fully open in April. The leaves fall in October/November in exposed sites, later in sheltered positions. Young stems can be killed by late frosts but they are soon replaced from the ground level.

Very tolerant of pruning, plants can be cut back to ground level and will regrow from the base.

The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly pleasant for it has fishy undertones, but from a distance its musky scent is appealing.

Very resistant to the predations of rabbits. The flowers are very attractive to insects. The fruit is very attractive to birds and this can draw them away from other cultivated fruits.

The elder is an early colonizer of derelict land, the seed arriving in the defecations of birds and mammals. It is a very good pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
127It's probably a good idea to grow 3 trees for pollination purposes, although we have certainly seen good crops of fruit from a single tree grown in isolation. Elderberries are best placed as an understory to a higher tree canopy. Will also grow in full sun if the roots are kept cool and moist.sun or partial shademoistloam50 eachPerennial, deciduous, multistemmed bush to small tree native to Europe. Wild form. This is the most tried-and-true species for medicinal use, and the berries are very tasty, and about twice as big as the berries of other species. Elderberry berries are rich in anthocyanins, bioflavonoids, vitamins and antioxidants.

The syrup, tincture or glycerite of the berries is excellent for treating the common cold and for overall increase in immunity. The fresh green leaves may be infused in olive oil to make an emollient embrocation for treating sunburn, rough skin, age spots, and/or diaper rash (normally individuals will not have both age spots and diaper rash, but it can happen). Truly, all parts of the plant may be used in herbal medicine, and this is much expanded upon in my book "Making Plant Medicine."

Flowers generally appear in year 3. Flowers turn rapidly into heavy clusters of fruits.

Elder has a very long history of household use as a medicinal herb and is also much used by herbalists. The plant has been called 'the medicine chest of country people'.

The flowers are the main part used in modern herbalism, though all parts of the plant have been used at times. The inner bark is collected from young trees in the autumn and is best sun-dried. It is diuretic, a strong purgative and in large doses emetic. It is used in the treatment of constipation and arthritic conditions.

An emollient ointment is made from the green inner bark.

The leaves can be used both fresh or dry. For drying, they are harvested in periods of fine weather during June and July. The leaves are purgative, but are more nauseous than the bark. They are also diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and haemostatic.

The juice is said to be a good treatment for inflamed eyes. An ointment made from the leaves is emollient and is used in the treatment of bruises, sprains, chilblains, wounds etc.

The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water'. The flowers can be preserved with salt to make them available for distillation later in the season. The water is mildly astringent and a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions. The dried flowers are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, galactogogue and pectoral. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes. The infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser.

Externally, the flowers are used in poultices to ease pain and abate inflammation. Used as an ointment, it treats chilblains, burns, wounds, scalds etc. The fruit is depurative, weakly diaphoretic and gently laxative. A tea made from the dried berries is said to be a good remedy for colic and diarrhoea.

The fruit is widely used for making wines, preserves etc., and these are said to retain the medicinal properties of the fruit. The pith of young stems is used in treating burns and scalds.

The root is no longer used in herbal medicine but it formerly had a high reputation as an emetic and purgative that was very effective against dropsy.

A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh inner bark of young branches. It relieves asthmatic symptoms and spurious croup in children.

The plant is a valuable addition to the compost heap, its flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator and the roots of the plant improve fermentation of the compost heap when growing nearby.

The leaves are used as an insect repellent, very effective when rubbed on the skin though they do impart their own unique fragrance. They can be powdered and placed amongst plants to act as a deterrent, or made into a spray when they act as an insecticide. This is prepared by boiling 3 - 4 handfuls of leaves in a litre of water, then straining and allowing to cool before applying. Effective against many insects, it also treats various fungal infections such as leaf rot and powdery mildew. The dried flowering shoots are used to repel insects, rodents etc.

The flowers are used in skin lotions, oils and ointments. Tolerant of salt-laden gales, this species can be grown as a shelter hedge in exposed maritime areas, it is rather bare in the winter though.

This is an excellent pioneer species to use when re-establishing woodlands. It is very tough and wind-resistant, grows quickly and provides shelter for longer-lived and taller woodland species to establish. It will generally maintain itself in the developing woodland, though usually in the sunnier positions.

A dye is obtained from the fruit and the bark. The bark of older branches and the root have been used as an ingredient in dyeing black. A green dye is obtained from the leaves when alum is used as a mordant. The berries yield various shades of blue and purple dyes. They have also been used as a hair dye, turning the hair black.

The blue colouring matter from the fruit can be used as a litmus to test if something is acid or alkaline. It turns green in an alkaline solution and red in an acid solution.

The pith in the stems of young branches pushes out easily and the hollow stems thus made have been used as pipes for blowing air into a fire. They can also be made into musical instruments. The pith of the wood is used for making microscope slides and also for treating burns and scalds. The mature wood is white and fine-grained. It is easily cut and polishes well. Valued highly by carpenters, it has many used, for making skewers, mathematical instruments, toys etc.

Fruit eaten raw or cooked. The flavour of the raw fruit is not acceptable to many tastes, though when cooked it makes delicious jams, preserves, pies and so forth. It can be used fresh or dried, the dried fruit being less bitter. The fruit is used to add flavour and colour to preserves, jams, pies, sauces, chutneys etc, it is also often used to make wine.

The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in large clusters. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Flowers eaten raw or cooked. They can also be dried for later use. The flowers are crisp and somewhat juicy, they have an aromatic smell and flavour and are delicious raw as a refreshing snack on a summers day, though look out for the insects. The flowers are used to add a muscatel flavour to stewed fruits, jellies and jams (especially gooseberry jam). They are often used to make a sparkling wine.

A sweet tea is made from the dried flowers. The leaves are used to impart a green colouring to oils and fats.
Antiinflammatory, Aperient, Beverage, Compost, Cosmetic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emollient, Expectorant, Food, Forage, Fungicide, Galactogogue, Haemostatic, Hedge, Immunostimulant, Insect Repellant, Insecticide, Laxative, Litmus, Ophthalmic, Pioneer, Pipes, Purgative, Salve, Stimulant, Wood
32Goat's RueFabaceaeGalega officinalis (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-05 00:00:0051 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantScarify seed by rubbing on sandpaper. Pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow the seed in spring or autumn in a cold frame. Spring-sown seed can be slow to germinate, a period of cold stratification may improve the germination time. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. If you have sufficient seed, then it is possible to sow outdoors in situ in mid to late spring. DIVISION in spring or autumn. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.Plant prefers poor garden soil and full sun. Difficult to get this herb these days, and international trade and some domestic trade in this species has been disallowed due to the misconception that it is an invasive weed. I've found that it disappears without care. Succeeds in most soils but repays generous treatment. Prefers full sun and a deep moist soil but it also succeeds in light shade. Grows well even in poor soils. Plants are very tolerant of neglect and can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be cut annually in the autumn. A long-lived plant, it can be invasive in good growing conditions.partial shademoistpoor50 eachThis is the most active of all galactagogue herbs. Promotes milk flow more reliably than anything I know (except childbirth). Works equally well for lactating human mothers and also domestic stock such as goats, horses and cows.

Goat's rue was once important in the treatment of plague, fevers and infectious diseases. It is still used in modern herbalism, though mainly for its effect in promoting milk-flow in lactating mothers (it has been shown to increase the flow of milk in cows and goats by 35 - 50%) and for its positive effect on the digestive system.

The plant contains galegine, an alkaloid that strongly reduces blood sugar levels which make it useful in the treatment of diabetes. The leaves and flowering tops are diaphoretic, diuretic, galactogogue and hypoglycaemic.

It has also been used in the treatment of fevers. It is taken internally to treat insufficient lactation, late-onset diabetes, pancreatitis and digestive problems, especially chronic constipation caused by a lack of digestive enzymes. The plant is harvested as it is just coming into flower and is dried for later use.

A fast-growing plant, it makes a good green manure crop, enriching the soil with organic matter and also fixing atmospheric nitrogen. The plant is used cosmetically in hand and foot bathes.

Leaves cooked and eaten like spinach.
NitrogenCosmetic, Curdling agent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Food, Forage, Galactogogue, Green manure, Hypoglycaemic
251Jerusalem ArtichokeAsteraceaeHelianthus tuberosus (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood, Forage
242Milk thistleAsteraceaeSilybum marianum (dg fo pf wp)0 eachIronForage, Galactogogue
82Pumpkin, Styrian Hull-lessCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-01 00:00:0018 each starts in outdoor soiltransplantPrepare the hill or the bed with plenty of aged manure or compost, direct-seed the seeds, and choose the three best seedlings from the hill (or if row cropping, thin to 1 plant every 3 feet). Keep weeded and watered. Vines will soon become self-mulching.90full sunrich30 eachThis is a unique pumpkin cultivar developed in the provice of Styria in Austria.

We have been thinking about the challenge of finding ways that people can grow protein-rich foods in temperated gardens with high yield for the effort and without the need for a lot of processing. Our search lead us eventually to the naked seeded pumpkin (so-called hull-less or Styrian pumpkins). These pumpkins have a seed that is encased only in a thin membrane, which may be consumed along with the seed. The seeds can be lightly toasted with a little salt or eaten raw and uncooked.

This is a convenient protein source, a good snack or addition to smoothies or salads, rich in unsaturated fat, an immune tonic and tonic to the reproductive organs of both females and males. Consumption of the seed is a specific for treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as prostate cancer.

These pumpkins are all about the seeds -- the flesh itself is low sugar and not particularly tasty. They make good goat food. So back to being after the seeds, which are a great protein source, we obtained some nice open-pollinated seed of this plant and grew a large patch of it this year. The plant turned out to be problem-free, fast-growing and a rewardingly prolific producer of the large fruits.

Harvest and processing: Harvest pumpkins after first frost, split open and scoop out seeds and spaghetti onto a table screen. Using your hands and a garden hose, work the mash and water it down until the seeds are free of spaghetti. Scoop up the seeds and air dry them on screens, stirring several times per day, until the seeds are dry and stable. Store in paper bags.
PotassiumAnthelmintic, Food, Forage, Immunostimulant, Oil, Veterinary
71Sunflower, Fat MamaAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Direct seed in the garden after the soil has warmed up in the spring or early summer. Put sunflowers to the back, as they tend to block access if you put them right in front. You can plant scarlet emperor beans at the same time, and they will run up the stalks. Normally sunflowers are thinned to at least a foot between each plant, and the rows are spaced about 3 feet apart. The fat mama under the right conditions will grow to 9 feet tall.full sunmoist50 eachTall, single-flowered sunflowers with fat heads bearing striped seeds that are the best kind for eating and for feeding to birds. These can also be used for making sunflower oil.

This is one of the best oil plants that can be easily grown by gardeners in the temperate north. Native American peoples extracted the oil by boiling the seeds in large pots, whereupon the oil rose to the surface of the water and could be skimmed off. Think about it. How would you do in your household without cooking oil? It's an ancient commodity, and it behooves us to maintain the ability and the right to make our own.

Of course, all this reductionist information should be taken with a grain of salt -- you can just grow 1 sunflower if you want -- you don't have to put them in rows -- and you can plant them closer together or further apart if you want -- it doesn't matter too much -- and you may find that if you've got great sun and plenty of water and a fertile soil that they top out at 12 feet, or if the soil is poor, with scant water or in the shade, then they may never do too much at all, in which case it might be more productive to just eat the sprouts than to expect a big sunflower. But all in all, these are super duper easy to grow, a good subject for kid's gardens or the kid in all of us, and given reasonable conditions you can expect very impressive results!
Fat, ProteinPhosphorousFood, Forage, Insectiary, Ornamental
70Sunflower, Hopi Black Dye; Black Oil SunflowerAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Horizon Herbs recommends direct-seeding in the spring. Plant a bit close at first, protect from crows, and eat the sprouts. Thin to 2 feet apart.90full sun30 each90-100 days to maturity. Generally single-headed although occasionally poly-headed, the plants are sturdy of stem and consistently dark black of seed. The ray flowers are golden yellow.

The seeds are used by Native Americans for dyeing wool and basketry. Imparts a color-fast light purple. Heirloom variety from Hopi Land, an oil, food, and dye plant that has its roots in ancient prehistory. One of the first domesticated plants, archaeological evidence points to the middle archaic period for the first human harboring of sunflower. The black seeded sunflowers are generally considered to be best for oil, while the striped sunflowers are considered to be best for direct consumption. However, I do admit that I ate the germ test! The seeds are very rich in oil. Native americans ground the seeds and boiled, then skimmed the oil. In native culture, vegetable oil is considered one of the most precious of substances. Also, the seeds are very good for eating, and the sprouts are potently delicious and healing to digestive woes.

Please plant Hopi black dye sunflowers -- this heirloom variety is endangered by all the new polyhead sunflowers that are being developed for selling as pretty flowers in farmer's markets. This one is just as pretty, and it is much more useful.
Fat, ProteinPhosphorousDye, Food, Forage, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental
97Turnip, Purple Top White GlobeBrassicaceaeBrassica rapa (dg fo pf wp)3Direct sow in March and April and again August to the beginning of October (weather permitting). Optimal soil temperature for germination: 18-21°C (66-70°F). Seeds should sprout in 7-14 days.

Sow 5mm-1cm (¼-½") deep in rows spaced 45-60cm (18-24") apart, and thin to 10-15cm (4-6") apart in the row.

At least 80% of seeds will germinate in optimal conditions. Usual seed life: 4 years. Per 100' row: 300 seeds, per acre: 87M seeds.
55Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. Humus-rich, deeply cultivated soil is key. Add plenty of well rotted compost or manure to th ebeds and cultivate to a depth of 20cm (8"). Dig in 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer for every 3m (10') of row. The real secret to success with turnips is speed. Sow short rows every 2-3 weeks, thin them quickly, keep them watered, harvest, and then sow some more.full sunmoistrich10 gramsCERTIFIED ORGANIC! Roots are smooth and nearly round. Bright purple on top and creamy white in the lower portion. They are mild flavoured and sweet. Can reach 13cm (5") in diameter but are better for eating when picked at 5-8cm (2-3").

Summer turnips are great for salads, pickles, and stir-fries. Any place that you would use spinach or Swiss chard, you can give turnip greens a try.

Gather greens and roots from June to October. Immature seed pods are also tasty.

Remember that turnips are members of the Brassica family, so they should not be planted where other Brassicas have been grown in the past 4 years. This simple crop rotation will prevent nearly all diseases from occurring in the first place. Floating row cover will protect plants from cabbage moth and flea beetles.

CarbohydrateFood, Forage, Sacrificial

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This server and other EcoReality operations are 100% wind powered, with energy from Bullfrog Power. You can be, too!