Plant used for/Food

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Please add more about plants that are used for Food here!

Food
Anything ingested for nutritional (rather than medicinal) purposes

For more information

Inventory

Here is EcoReality's seed inventory for plants that are used as Food:

IDcommon namefamilylatin namedatequantityactiondays to germpropagationdays to maturityhabitatsundrainagesoilinventorynotesnutrientsneedsuse
259AlfalfaFabaceaeMedicago sativa (dg fo pf wp)Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ. The seed can also be sown in situ in autumn. Seed can be obtained that has been inoculated with Rhizobium bacteria, enabling the plant to succeed in soils where the bacteria is not already present. Alfalfa can adapt to a wide range of climatic conditions from cold temperate to warm sub-tropical, but thrives best on a rich, friable, well-drained loamy soil with loose topsoil supplied with lime. It does not tolerate waterlogging and fails to grow on acid soils. Grows well on light soils. Alfalfa is a very deep rooting plant, bringing up nutrients from deep in the soil and making them available for other plants with shallower root systems. It is a good companion plant for growing near fruit trees and grape vines so long as it is in a reasonably sunny position, but it does not grow well with onions or other members of the Allium genus.Hardy to zone 5. In flower June to July. Seeds ripen July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, lepidoptera, self. Self-fertile.partial shadewell drainedpoor0 eachLeaves and young shoots - raw or cooked. The leaves can also be dried for later use. The seed is commonly sprouted which is added to salads, used in sandwiches etc or cooked in soups. The seed is soaked in warm water for 12 hours, then kept moist in a container in a warm place to sprout. It is ready in about 4 - 6 days. The seeds can also be ground into a powder and used as a mush, or mixed with cereal flours for making a nutritionally improved bread etc. An appetite-stimulating tea is made from the leaves.

Alfalfa leaves, either fresh or dried, have traditionally been used as a nutritive tonic to stimulate the appetite and promote weight gain. The plant has an oestrogenic action and could prove useful in treating problems related to menstruation and the menopause. The plant is grown commercially as a source of chlorophyll and carotene, both of which have proven health benefits. The leaves also contain the anti-oxidant tricin. The root is febrifuge and is also prescribed in cases of highly coloured urine. Extracts of the plant are antibacterial. Used for asthma, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders (anti-ulcer).

Nitrogen, Protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin KAnodyne, Antibacterial, Antiscorbutic, Aperient, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Febrifuge, Food, Forage, Haemostatic, Mulch, Nutritive, Oil, Stimulant, Tonic
103Amaranth, Golden GiantAmaranthaceaeAmaranthus hypochondriacus (dg fo pf wp)Direct seed in the spring garden and thin to about 1 foot apart. We tested the yield of our (Horizon Herbs Select) cultivar and registered one pound of finished seed per 10 row feet (about 10 plants). Seed - sow late spring in situ. An earlier sowing can be made in a greenhouse and the plants put out after the last expected frosts. Germination is usually rapid and good if the soil is warm. A drop in temperature overnight aids germination. Cuttings of growing plants root easily.100Plant prefers full sun and regular garden soil. If you can grow pigweed in your garden, then you can grow this amaranth (they are related).

This is one of the easiest grains for home gardeners to grow and eat. At this point we may be looking at an interesting diversion from our standard diet -- in a few years we may be relying on it heavily. At my house we already rely on it heavily. It is time to walk the garden, and make Captain Crunch walk the plank!

Requires a hot sheltered position if it is to do well. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.2 to 7.5. Plants should not be given inorganic fertilizers, see notes above on toxicity. Often cultivated, especially in tropical areas, for its edible leaves and seeds, there are many named varieties. This is the most robust and highest yielding of the grain amaranths, though it is late maturing and therefore less suitable for northern areas.

Most if not all members of this genus photosynthesize by a more efficient method than most plants. Called the 'C4 carbon-fixation pathway', this process is particularly efficient at high temperatures, in bright sunlight and under dry conditions.
full sungarden200 eachAnnual native to South America. This is one of the earliest of all crops. As a young archaeologist, I excavated charred Amaranth seeds at the Koster site dating back to the new world paleolithic. This plant is still easy and worthwhile to grow and makes huge plumes of golden flowers on plants to 8 feet tall. Golden Amaranth produces the superior type of seed for food use -- light colored, loaded with nutrients, incomparably tasty.

Harvest: Wait until the seed is completely mature in the seedhead -- rub the head between your hands and if mature seed falls out, then its done. If not, then let it mature some more -- it won't hurt a thing! Harvest in the afternoon of a bright and sunny day (see harvest pictures, attached). Lay the seedheads out in the sun on tarps to dry, turning regularly and covering to disallow morning dew. Or, lay the seedheads out on racks in the dry shade or in an unused solar greenhouse. Once thoroughly dry, beat the heads with flails made of green willow or rub the heads through a 1/2 inch hardware cloth. Then, wind winnow on a sheet, allowing the chaff to blow away, and keeping the grain behind. If you have seed cleaning screens then the job will be easier and faster. Once the seed is clean, store it in jars in the kitchen.

It will last many years (if you don't eat it faster than that, that is.) I use 1/2 cup per person for breakfast, simmered in five times as much water. In other words, a standard breakfast for 2 people would be one cup of grain to 5 cups of water. Bring rapidly to a boil, then set to low and simmer for about 30 minutes, until the water is absorbed by the grain and the cooking gruel reaches the "pukka-pukka" stage where the bubbles burst out of the thickened gruel with a popping sound. Then, turn off the heat and cover for about 10 minutes. Then eat naked, or embellished by milks, raisins or other dried fruits.

P.S. If you make this your breakfast cereal you will find that, after a couple of days, your (ahem) stool becomes very large and well formed. This is reason for rejoicing, not only because it feels great on expulsion, but because toxins are being moved out of your system, and as a cosequence you will probably not suffer from colon cancer.
Carbohydrate, ProteinAstringent, Dye, Food
243Amaranth, MixAmaranthaceaeAmaranthus hypochondriacus (dg fo pf wp)Seed - sow April in situ. The seed can either be sown broadcast or in rows about 25cm apart, thinning the plants to about every 10cm. Germination is rapid, even in fairly dry conditions. Be careful not to weed out the seedlings because they look very similar to some common garden weeds[K].Cultivated Beds;full sunwell drainedgarden0 eachProteinAstringent, Dye, Food
13Angelica Tree, JapaneseAraliaceaeAralia elata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-22 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant30Soak berries overnight, then smash them (it's easy) and float off the fruit and plant the seeds. Sow seeds in the fall to early spring. Slow and spotty germ is normal, so do not prematurely discard flats.

Seed best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 - 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 - 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this.

Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage.

Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Prefers a good deep loam and a position in semi-shade but it also succeeds in a sunny position. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown on poorer soils. Prefers an acid soil. Dormant plants are hardy to at least -15°c. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun.

A very ornamental species, there are a number of named varieties. It is usually a single stemmed shrub, spreading by means of suckers. This species is closely allied to A. chinensis.
Plant prefers full sun to part shade and moist soils.sun or partial shademoistpoor100 eachHardiness: All temperate zones.

Deciduous perennial shrub to small tree native to China. Highly ornamental, with narrow compound leaves and masses of fragrant, white flowers. Leaves turn bright red in the fall.

Widely used in native medicine, the plant is known to treat everything from coughs to cancer.
Anodyne, Antitussive, Cancer, Carminative, Food, Ornamental
90Artichoke, Green GlobeAsteraceaeCynara cardunculus (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-04 00:00:0021 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant10It takes some work and a lot of patience to grow artichokes from seed, but it's worth the effort. Commercial culture is limited to warm areas hardiness zone 7 and above. Artichokes require good soil, regular watering and feeding, plus frost protection in winter. Before frost, cut back to 15cm (6") tall and mulch with soil, straw or leaves to keep the root from freezing. Uncover in April. Offshoots of these plants should be set out in the spring, so that the older plants can be replaced after a few years.

Start indoors in late January to early February under bright lights.

Sow 2 seeds per pot, 5mm (¼") deep. Keep moist in a warm place until seeds germinate in 10 to 21 days. Transplant seedlings into the garden 2 weeks after the last average frost date for your area. Artichokes need a cool period (250 hours) below 10°C (50°F) to induce flowering, but will not survive hard frost. Space plants 1m (3') apart. Seeds can also be germinated between damp sheets of paper towel.

In optimum conditions at least 70% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 1 year.
150Ideal pH: 5.6-6.6. Select a sunny, sheltered location with well-draining soil. Dig in lots of compost or rotted manure and add half to 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer per plant. On the coast, with protective mulch, these plants may overwinter. In late October cut back to 15cm (6") tall, and mulch well with straw, soil, leaves, or burlap, to keep the roots from freezing. Uncover in April.full sunwell drained2 gramsGreen Globe artichokes grow on such attractive plants that they are often found in the flower garden. A little patience is needed but the wait is worthwhile. A rich and deeply dug soil is required for the plants to produce their best heads. Starting in March or April, sow seed outdoors 1.5cm (0.5") deep in a seedbed and transplant to the permanent position when seedlings are large enough to handle. Water well. Allow 2-3ft between plants as they will eventually reach a height of 5ft. Young plants produce their best heads in the second year of cropping and become more prolific each year. To cook, rinse thoroughly under a tap and remove the pointed tips. Boil in salty water for 20-40 minutes until tender. Drain upside down and serve hot with melted butter or Hollandaise sauce.Antioxidants, Chromium, Fibre: Non-Soluble, Folate, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorous, Vitamin CFood
182Arugula, RegularBrassicaceaeEruca sativa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-06 00:00:00228 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant40full sun0 eachOrganic.Food
267Autumn Olive; Autumn Berry, Silverberry, Aki-Gumi, OleasterElaeagnaceaeElaeagnus umbellata (dg fo pf wp)Seed: sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks cold stratification can help. The seed usually (eventually) germinates quite well.


Cuttings: half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, 10 - 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage.

Layering: September/October. Takes 12 months.

Plants can fruit in 6 years from seed.

An excellent companion plant, when grown in orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.
full sunwell drainedpoorFruit: edible raw or cooked. Juicy and pleasantly acid, they are tasty raw and can also be made into jams, preserves etc. The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent. The fruit contains about 8.3% sugars, 4.5% protein, 1% ash. The vitamin C content is about 12mg per 100g. Mature bushes in the wild yield about 650g of fruit over 2 - 3 pickings. The harvested fruit stores for about 15 days at room temperature. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and contains a single large seed.

Seed: edible raw or cooked. It can be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous.


The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant.

The seeds are used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs.

The expressed oil from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Very tolerant of maritime exposure, it makes a good informal hedge, succeeding even in very exposed positions. The plants make a reasonable wind-protecting screen, they are about as wide as they are tall. They make a good companion hedge, enriching the soil and fertilizing neighbouring plants. The wood is a good fuel.
Antioxidants, Lycopene, Nitrogen, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin EAstringent, Beverage, Cancer, Cardiac, Food, Fuel, Hedge, Pectoral, Stimulant
237Basil, Holy, TulsiLamiaceaeOcimum sanctum (dg fo pf wp)2013-03-15 00:00:00400 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant250 eachAdaptogen, Antidermatosic, Antifungal, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antipyretic, Antitussive, Antiviral, Anxiolytic, Cardiac, Carminative, Diuretic, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Immunomodulator, Lithontripic, Mouthwash, Ophthalmic, Pectoral, Seasoning, Stings
320Basil, Italian Large LeafLamiaceaeOcimum basilicum (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-18 00:00:0060 each starts in greenhouse soiltransplant25Food, Seasoning
238Basil, Red RubinLamiaceaeOcimum basilicum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-06 00:00:0052 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantStart indoors in flats 4-6 weeks before transplanting when possibility of frost has passed and soil has warmed. Can also be direct-seeded into warm garden soil, 1 seed per inch, when chance of frost has passed. During germination, keep entire seedbed evenly moist.

Soil&water

Prefers rich, moist, but well-drained soils. Enrich soil with compost but do not over-fertilize. Water moderately. Mulch to conserve soil moisture and control weeds.
0 gramsThe most consistently deep purple leaves of all the basils I've seen. A fine traditional flavour and aroma, along with beautiful lavender flowers, make this basil an outstanding culinary and ornamental variety. A must for the herb garden, dramatic in the flower bed, and great habitat for pollinators. Seasoning
239Basil, SweetLamiaceaeOcimum basilicum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-12 00:00:0050% germ25Certified organic. This variety grows big, mid-green leaves all summer long. Keep picking the growing tips and the two pairs of leaves below them for the kitchen. Sow several times for a continuous supply. Grow one on a warm windowsill through the winter. 450 eachSeasoning
240Basil, Wild perennialLamiaceaeClinopodium vulgare (dg fo pf wp)0 eachSeasoning
16Bayberry; Candleberry MyrtleMyricaceaeMyrica cerifera (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-20 00:00:00otherSow in outdoor nursery bed or outdoor flats in the fall, winter, or very early spring, or cold- condition 6 weeks. Scarify before planting by rubbing on medium grit sandpaper. Space trees at least 15 feet apart.Plant prefers full sun.full sun50 eachPerennial, dioecious, evergreen shrub to small tree to 25 feet. Native to the southern US.

The root bark is a valuable stimulating astringent employed for treating diarrhea and dysentery. Bayberry root bark powder is an oldtime apothecary item.

The wax that surrounds the seeds is a high grade plant wax that burns clear -- aromatic to the max.
Antibacterial, Astringent, Dye, Emetic, Fragrance, Hedge, Narcotic, Oil, Sternutatory, Stimulant, Tonic, Wood
224Beans, FavaFabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)70 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
228Beans, Mixed (purple, white, orange)FabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)80 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
86Beans, Pole, Blue LakeFabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)8Direct sow from mid-May to the beginning of July. Try to plant during a warm, dry spell. Soil must be warm - if it is not warm enough, seeds will rot, especially our untreated seeds. Optimal soil temperature: 21-32°C (70-90°F).

Seeds can be started indoors, or sowed directly. Set seeds 7-10cm (3-4") apart and 3.5cm (1½") deep at the base of a support. Plants will climb by twining around almost anything. Try rough poles, lumber, re-bar, or build a strong trellis 2-2.5m (6-8') tall. Seeds will sprout in 8-16 days, depending on soil conditions.


In optimal conditions a tleast 75% of seeds should germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 400 seeds. Per acre: 43.5M seeds.
65Ideal pH: 6.0-6.5. Well drained, warm soil in full sun is best. Use 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer for every wm (10') of row. Too much nitrogen fertilizer is often the cause of poor pod set and delayed maturity. If beans flower but do not set pods, the cause can be zinc deficiency. Try spraying the plants with kelp based fertilizer. Wet leaves on crowded plants are subject to diseases. Thin plants to increase air circulation and avoid touching the leaves while they are wet. Because pole beans are always climbing, there are always beans at different stages of maturity. It is important to keep picking regularly so the plant does not fully mature seeds and stop producing new pods. If pods get fat with seed, the plant will stop flowering. The smaller the bean, the more tender they are.50 gramsBlue Lake beans are straight, stringless and unusually smooth, with a stronger flavour than the bush variety. Its large numbers of dark green pods are round, tender and meaty, and 15-18cm (6-7") long. Seeds are white and plants are long bearing.

Many people feel that pole beans have a richer bean flavour than bush beans. The effort of trellising them is more than repaid by the ease of picking and their extended, abundant harvest. Pole beans are a good choice for small gardens because they use vertical space.

If beans flower but do not set pods, the cause can be a zinc deficiency. Try spraying the plants with Kelpman. Wet leaves on crowded plants are subject to diseases. Thin plants to increase air circulation and try not to touch the plants while they are wet.
Carbohydrate, Nitrogen, ProteinZincFood
226Beans, PurpleFabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)8410 eachfrom harvest 2011 - viable? Nitrogen, ProteinFood
227Beans, Purple BushFabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)8well drained440 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
229Beans, Unknown (red/black)FabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)860 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
225Beans, Yellow bush beansFabaceaePhaseolus vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)80 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
100Beet, Early Wonder Tall TopChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-03 00:00:00150 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5Direct sow late April to mid-July. Beets will not produce roots if planted when the soil is too cold. Seeds will germinate in 5-12 days, depending on soil temperature. Optimal soil temperature: 10-26°C (50-80°F).

Sow 1cm (½") deep, 5-10cm (2-4") apart in rows 30-45cm (12-18") apart.

In optimum conditions at least 75% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 600-1M seeds, per acre: 436M seeds.
55Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. For uniformly sized beets, thin carefully to 7-15cm (3-6") apart when seedlings are 5cm (2") tall. Eat thinned plants, roots and all. root size is controlled by spacing and variety.sun or partial shademoistrich100 gramsOur most popular beet variety! Early Wonder Tall Top beets adapt to all seasons but are especially good in early spring with quick growth in chilly soils. Early wonder tall top produce tall, tasty green leaves with red stems and slightly flattened roots thst are wonderful for eating. Early Wonder Tall Top beets makes a good variety for general table use.

Beets are incredibly healthy eating. Both the roots and the leaves are an excellent source of antioxidants, minerals, and vitamin C. They also contain betaine, a compound that is essential for cardiovascular health. Eat them raw, cooked, pickled - you can even make beet chips!

Harvest at any size, but for the best flavour, pull the beets as soon as they have reached full-size. Eat the greens too. Store in the ground, or in moist peat or sand just above freezing.

If beets have black cankers in the roots, soil may need more boron. Dissolve 1 tablespoon of borax to 4L (8½ US pints) of water, and spread evenly over 9m² (100 sq ft) of soil. Do not overapply at a heavier rate. Circular lesions with a purple halo on the leaf is cercospera leaf spot. Prevent by rotation and sanitation. Leaf miner maggots cause blistered grey tunnels in leaves. Just squish them inside the leaf. Floating row cover carefully applied will prevent the leaf miner fly from laying its eggs.

BoronDye, Food, Forage
84Beet, SugarChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-28 00:00:00148 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5800 eachThe leaves are excellent for eating. The long, white roots are very high in sugar. They are good for the table, boiled or baked and mashed, or they can be boiled down in water to make sugar. Or, you can munch them right in the garden, like the picture shows. Super duper sweet, no funny aftertaste, and quite buzzy. Yum!Food, Forage, Sweetening
183Beets, Beets BlendChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)5310 eachDye, Food
184Beets, Detroit RedChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)2013-03-29 00:00:0071 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant50 eachDye, Food
18Bergamot, Red; Bee Balm; Oswego TeaLamiaceaeMonarda didyma (dg fo pf wp)0 eachRare. The red-flowered Bergamot, highly aromatic and decorative, is surely one of the most striking of Native American wild plants, with a long history of use in medicine. The tea or tincture of the plant is delightfully tasty, a general carminative and digestive, also useful for treating the common cold and crabiness.Carminative, Digestive, Fragrance
187Bok choyBrassicaceaeBrassica rapa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-12 00:00:0050% germ2500 eachFood
186Broccoli, Green GoliathBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-15 00:00:00400 each seeds in 8cc blocksdiscard0 eachFood
185Broccoli, RappBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-15 00:00:00300 each seeds in 8cc blocks50% germ300 eachFood
247Buckwheat, MedawaskaPolygonaceaeFagopyrum vulgare (dg fo pf wp)5Seed - sow from the middle of spring to early summer in situ. The seed usually germinates in 5 days[115]. The earlier sowings are for a seed or leaf crop whilst the later sowings are used mainly for leaf crops or green manure.Cultivated Beds;full sunwell drained930 eachFood, Forage, Mulch
248Butterfly Weed; Pleurisy RootApocynaceaeAsclepias tuberosa (dg fo pf wp)30Seed best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn or in late winter. We have also had good results from sowing the seed in the greenhouse in early spring, though stored seed might need 2 - 3 weeks cold stratification. Germination usually takes place in 1 - 3 months at 18°c. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out when they are in active growth in late spring or early summer and give them some protection from slugs until they are growing away strongly.

Division in spring. With great care since the plant resents root disturbance. Pot the divisions up and place them in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse until they are growing away strongly, then plant them out in the summer, giving them some protection from slugs until they are established.

Basal cuttings in late spring. Use shoots about 10cm long with as much of their white underground stem as possible. Pot them up individually and place them in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse until they are rooting and growing actively. If the plants grow sufficiently, they can be put into their permanent positions in the summer, otherwise keep them in the greenhouse until the following spring and when they are in active growth plant them out into their permanent positions. Give them some protection from slugs until they are established.

Prefers a well-drained light, rich or peaty soil. Prefers a sandy soil and a sunny position. Prefers a slightly acid soil. Prefers a dry soil. Plants are hardy to about -20°c.

Plants should be pot-grown from seed and planted out in their permanent positions when young. Plants are particularly at risk from slugs, however, and some protection will probably be required until the plants are established and also in the spring when the new shoots come into growth. The flower can trap insects between its anther cells, the struggles of the insect in escaping ensure the pollination of the plant.
sun or partial shadewell drainedrich0 each*Flower buds - cooked. They taste somewhat like peas.
  • Young shoots - cooked. An asparagus substitute.
  • The tips of older shoots are cooked like spinach.
  • Young seed pods - cooked. Harvested when 3 - 4 cm long and before the seed floss begins to form, they are very appetizing.
  • The flower clusters can be boiled down to make a sugary syrup. In hot weather the flowers produce so much nectar that it crystallises out into small lumps which can be eaten like sweets, they are delicious.
  • Root - cooked. A nutty flavour. Some reports say that it is poisonous.
  • An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The seed is very small, however, and commercial usage would not be very viable.

Pleurisy root is a bitter, nutty-flavoured tonic herb that increases perspiration, relieves spasms and acts as an expectorant. It was much used by the North American Indians and acquired a reputation as a heal-all amongst the earlier white settlers. Its main use in present day herbalism is for relieving the pain and inflammation of pleurisy. The root was very popular as a medicinal herb for the treatment of a range of lung diseases, it was considered especially useful as an expectorant.

It has also been used internally with great advantage in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism etc. Use with caution; this remedy should not be prescribed for pregnant women.

The root is harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried. A poultice of the dried, powdered roots is used in the treatment of swellings, bruises, wounds, ulcers, lameness etc.
Antispasmodic, Carminative, Cathartic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Insectiary, Latex, Oil, Ornamental, Pollution, Poultice, Stuffing, Sweetening, Tonic, Vasodilator
91Cabbage, ErmosaBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-04 00:00:00121 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant6Sow indoors beginning in March and transplant outdoors from April to the end of July. Overwintering cabbage is sown outdoors during July. Optimal soil temperature: 10-30°C (50-85°F). Seeds should germinate in 7-10 days.

Sow 3 or 4 seeds per pot, 5mm (¼") deep, under very bright light. Thin to the strongest plant. Space transplants 45-60cm (18-24") apart in rows 60-90cm (24-36") apart.


In optimum conditions at least 80% of seeds should germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 200 seeds, per acre: 44M seeds.
95Cabbage does best in humus-rich soil amended with composted manure. Mix ½ cup complete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each transplant. If growth slows, side dress with a little more complete organic fertilizer. heads of early varieties can split from over-maturity, rapid growth after heavy rain, or irrigation after dry spells. Splits can be delayed by twisting the plant or cultivating deeply next to plants in order to break roots and slow growth. Fall and winter varieties stand in the garden longer without splitting. If direct sown, add 20-25 days to the maturity date. Cabbage heads are ready when they're firm to the touch, and when the interior is fairly dense. Heads will split when they're allowed to overly mature. Rapid growth due to excess watering and fertility will also cause splitting of the head. Plant early, midseason and late varieties to spread out your harvest. Late varieties tend to be better for storage or for making sauerkraut. Early varieties tend not to store well.full sunrich1 gramsCooks appreciate this big savoy for salads. Ermosa is in wonderful cole slaw, or to wrap fillings. Savoy cabbages have a rich full flavour. Ermosa is a fancy, late-season variety for planting late spring and fall and winter harvest. Very uniform, round 15-18cm (6-7inches) heads have a short core. Ermosa cabbage heads are filled densely with creamy yellow interior leaves. Ermosa holds up well into the fall and withstands winter rains.

Cabbage is full of nutrients. To preserve its vitamins and mineral content, do not overcook cabbage. Avoid cooking in aluminum pans to keep the smell down. Cabbages are highly ornamental in the garden-choose varieties for colour (deep-red, blue-green, dark-green) and leaf texture (savoyed or flat leaf).

Diseases

Purple blotch (Alternaria porri) - Avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so plant parts above the ground dry as quickly as possible. Allow for air circulation, and avoid crowding plants. Pull weeds around plants and garden area to increase air circulation. When plants are not wet, remove and destroy affected plant parts. In autumn rake and destroy all fallen or diseased leaves and fruit.

Clubroot - If soil infested, add lime to raise soil pH to 7.2. Locate new plants in part of garden different from previous year's location. If that is not possible, remove infested soil and replace with fresh soil. Purchase healthy transplants or start seed in sterile potting mix or fresh ground. Remove and discard or destroy entire infested plant along with immediately surrounding soil and soil clinging to roots.

Pests:

Flea Beetles - Use row covers to help protect plants from early damage. Put in place at planting and remove before temperatures get too hot in midsummer. Control weeds.

Cutworms - Control weeds. Cardboard collars around each plant give good protection.

Cabbage root maggot - White maggot larvae tunnel in and feed on roots of plants. Damage causes wilting early on, death of plants later on. Use row covers to help protect plants from early damage.

Cabbageworms - Handpick and destroy. Row covers may be useful on small plantings to help protect plants from early damage. Put in place at planting and remove before temperatures get too hot in midsummer.

Cabbage aphids - A hard stream of water can be used to remove aphids from plants. Wash off with water occasionally as needed early in the day. Check for evidence of natural enemies such as gray-brown or bloated parasitized aphids and the presence of alligator-like larvae of lady beetles and lacewings.

Boron, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Fibre: Non-Soluble, Iron, Nitrogen, Potassium, Sulfur, ZincFood
102Cabbage, Red AcreBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-11 00:00:0050% germ610025 gramsCompact plants with short stems produce solid, five to seven inches in diameter, round, flattened, red-purple colored heads weighing two to four pounds. Stands well and is one of the best varieties for storage. Yellows resistant.Boron, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Sulfur, ZincFood
95Cabbage, Sue Choi China ExpressBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-03 00:00:00169 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant6Sow indoors beginning in March and transplant outdoors from April to the end of July. Overwintering cabbage is sown outdoors during July. Optimal soil temperature: 10-30°C (50-85°F). Seeds should germinate in 7-10 days.

Sow 3 or 4 seeds per pot, 5mm (¼") deep, under very bright light. Thin to the strongest plant. Space transplants 45-60cm (18-24") apart in rows 60-90cm (24-36") apart.

In optimum conditions at least 80% of seeds should germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 200 seeds, per acre: 44M seeds.
65Ideal pH: 6.5-7.0. Cabbage does best in humus-rich soil amended with composted manure. Mix ½ cup complete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each transplant. If growth slows, side dress with a little more complete organic fertilizer. heads of early varieties can split from over-maturity, rapid growth after heavy rain, or irrigation after dry spells. Splits can be delayed by twisting the plant or cultivating deeply next to plants in order to break roots and slow growth. Fall and winter varieties stand in the garden longer without splitting. If direct sown, add 20-25 days to the maturity date.full sunrich2 gramsThis Chinese cabbage is often marketed as sui choi. These sweet, crisp greens are ideal for salads and a mainstay of the stir-fry. Big, broad, barrel-shaped, and pale-green heads are tightly packed and 0.6-2.2kg (11/2-5lb) after trimming. This variety has good bolt resistance and excellent uniformity. For full-sized heads sow in summer with the last planting 10 weeks before frost. Established plants are vigorous and will stand in the garden until freezes get severe. However, seedlings will bolt if they are exposed to temperatures below 10ºC (50ºF) for more than 2 weeks; so protect early spring planting with cloches.

Cabbage is full of nutrients. To preserve its vitamins and mineral content, do not overcook cabbage. Avoid cooking in aluminum pans to keep the smell down. Cabbages are highly ornamental in the garden-choose varieties for colour (deep-red, blue-green, dark-green) and leaf texture (savoyed or flat leaf).

Cabbage heads are ready when they're firm to the touch, and when the interior is fairly dense. Heads will split when they're allowed to overly mature. Rapid growth due to excess watering and fertility will also cause splitting of the head. Plant early, midseason and late varieties to spread out your harvest. Late varieties tend to be better for storage or for making sauerkraut. Early varieties tend not to store well.

Diseases

Purple blotch (Alternaria porri) - Avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so plant parts above the ground dry as quickly as possible. Allow for air circulation, and avoid crowding plants. Pull weeds around plants and garden area to increase air circulation. When plants are not wet, remove and destroy affected plant parts. In autumn rake and destroy all fallen or diseased leaves and fruit.

Clubroot - If soil infested, add lime to raise soil pH to 7.2. Locate new plants in part of garden different from previous year's location. If that is not possible, remove infested soil and replace with fresh soil. Purchase healthy transplants or start seed in sterile potting mix or fresh ground. Remove and discard or destroy entire infested plant along with immediately surrounding soil and soil clinging to roots.

Flea Beetles - Use row covers to help protect plants from early damage. Put in place at planting and remove before temperatures get too hot in midsummer. Control weeds.

Cutworms - Control weeds. Cardboard collars around each plant give good protection.

Cabbage root maggot - White maggot larvae tunnel in and feed on roots of plants. Damage causes wilting early on, death of plants later on. Use row covers to help protect plants from early damage.

Cabbageworms - Handpick and destroy. Row covers may be useful on small plantings to help protect plants from early damage. Put in place at planting and remove before temperatures get too hot in midsummer.

Cabbage aphids - A hard stream of water can be used to remove aphids from plants. Wash off with water occasionally as needed early in the day. Check for evidence of natural enemies such as gray-brown or bloated parasitized aphids and the presence of alligator-like larvae of lady beetles and lacewings.
Boron, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Nitrogen, Potassium, Sulfur, ZincFood
249CamasHyacinthaceaeCamassia quamash (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood, Ornamental
6Camelina; Gold of Pleasure; Wild Flax; German Sesame; Siberian OilseedBrassicaceaeCamelina sativa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-12 00:00:0050% germPrepare a weed-free seedbed in spring. Sprinkle the seed on the surface of the bed and press in. Keep evenly moist until germination. Harvest when the seed is fully mature and hard.Easy to grow and high yielding, even on marginal land. Requires little or no input of fertilizer or water to achieve a good crop. Excellent choice for dryland farming and as a rotation crop for wheat or other grains.full sundrought tolerantpoor10 eachHardiness: All zones. Annual native to Northern Europe.

An ancient oilseed crop that is experiencing a resurgence of popularity due to three major factors:

1) easy to grow and high yielding, even on marginal land. Requires little or no input of fertilizer or water to achieve a good crop. Excellent choice for dryland farming and as a rotation crop for wheat or other grains.

2) a heat stabile and deliciously edible oil that has excellent shelf life can be cold pressed from the seeds. Very high in unsaturated fatty acids, the oil is loaded with health promoting Omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin E. The oil is a delicious raw condiment, and is a stabile and tasty cooking oil. The seeds themselves are excellent for feeding to poultry, giving exceptional egg production. Other stock can benefit from the feed value of this seed, as well.

3) this is one of the best crops for producing biodiesel. The plant is hardy to the temperate north and gives high yields of clean burning fuel. Interestingly, there are efforts afoot to limit the distribution of Camelina seed, and producers have worked out complex multi-level contracts aimed at cornering the market and fueling corporations instead of promoting self-sufficiency. We take issue with such things.

The plant has been used by humans for at least 4,000 years (remains in Switzerland date it to the Neolithic). Making this little weedy wonder into an exclusive botanical in modern times is not moving in the direction of cooperation. We offer the seed up to the public domain, and hope that many of you will grow it experimentally, and work your clean little patches up into commercially viable fields within a few years.

Camelina gives fast turnaround and high yield per input. The photo is of our recent germ test of this seed.

This species is a bad companion plant, depressing the growth of nearby plants. It has become a noxious weed of cultivated fields in some of the areas into which it has been introduced.

An oil from the seed is used as a luminant and as an emollient for softening the skin. A fibre is obtained from the stems. The stems are used for making brooms.
Fat, Fat: Omega-3Emollient, Fibre, Food, Forage, Fuel, Oil
89Carrot, Nutri-RedApiaceaeDaucus carota (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-10 00:00:00100 metres seeds in outdoor soilplant7Direct sow April to mid-July for harvests from July to November. Sow at 3 week intervals for a continuous harvest. Optimal soil temperature: 7-30°C (45-85°F). Seeds take as long as 14-21 days to germinate.

Because carrot seeds are tiny, they need to be sown shallowly. The trick is to keep the top-most layer of soil damp during the long germination period. Water deeply prior to planting. Direct sow the tiny seeds 5mm (¼") deep, 4 seeds per 2cm (1"), and firm soil lightly after seeding. Make sure the seeds are only just buried. Water the area with the gentlest stream you can provide, and keep it constantly moist until the seeds sprout.

In optimal conditions at least 60% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 2.4M seeds, per acre: 1,044M seeds. Rates are for raw, not pelleted seeds.
76The softer and more humus-based the soil, the better. When soil is dry enough in spring, work it to a fine texture. Broadcast and dig in ½ cup complete organic fertilizer for every 3m (10') of row. Avoid fresh manure. Carrots will become misshapen, but still edible if they hit anything hard as they grow down into the soil. Keep weeded and watered. It is very important to thin carrots in order to allow them room to grow, and so they don't compete for available nutrients, moisture, and light. Then to 4-10cm (1½-4") when the young plants are 2cm (1") tall. Use wider spacing to get larger roots. As they grow, carrots push up, out of the soil, so hill soil up to prevent getting a green shoulder.full sunwell drainedsandy67 eachCarrots are second only to beets in sugar content, and they're packed with beta carotene, vitamins, minerals, and fibre. They also happen to be delicious and easy to grow!

Very flavourful, striking red carrots that are meant to be cooked rather than eaten raw. This variety is extremely high in lycopene, the same antioxidant found in tomatoes. The colour actually increases when cooked, and the lycopene becomes more accessible to the body. Slender, red, gourmet carrots to 23cm (9") in length.

Carrots can be harvested at any size, but flavour is best when the carrot has turned bright orange. After harvest, store at cold temperatures just above 0ºC. You can store in sand or sawdust, or simply leave carrots under heaped soil in the garden during the winter, and pull as you need them.

The Carrot Rust Fly - This pest lays its eggs at the base of the growing carrots. The larva of the fly chews tunnels and unsightly grooves through the surface of the root, causing rot. Unfortunately the damage isn't just cosmetic; the activities of the Carrot Rust Fly larva changes the flavour of the carrot and makes it quite inedible. Use our floating row cover to keep the adults away from the carrots. Plant after the beginning of June to avoid the first and worst infestation period. The good news for apartment dwellers who want to grow carrots on their balconies is the Carrot Rust Fly is not a good flyer. It is unlikely to infest their high-rise crop.

Wireworm - These are the larva of click beetles. They are about an inch and a half long, slender and reddish brown. When squeezed they turn as rigid as a wire, hence the name. Wireworms chew irregular holes through roots, making the carrots inedible. Wireworms prefer a moist soil so preparing your carrot bed so that it is well drained will help. Interplanting with mustard leaf is an excellent way to discourage wireworm damage. The flavour of the mustard is one deterrent, and mustard also helps to dry out the soil, forcing the wireworm away from the roots.

Predatory nematodes are an effective control for both Carrot Rust Fly and wireworm. Apply generously in the spring when the larva of both pests is most active.

Vitamin AFood
99Carrot, Purple DragonApiaceaeDaucus carota (dg fo pf wp)7Direct sow April to mid-July for harvests from July to November. Sow at 3 week intervals for a continuous harvest. Optimal soil temperature: 7-30°C (45-85°F). Seeds take as long as 14-21 days to germinate.

Because carrot seeds are tiny, they need to be sown shallowly. The trick is to keep the top-most layer of soil damp during the long germination period. Water deeply prior to planting. Direct sow the tiny seeds 5mm (¼") deep, 4 seeds per 2cm (1"), and firm soil lightly after seeding. Make sure the seeds are only just buried. Water the area with the gentlest stream you can provide, and keep it constantly moist until the seeds sprout.

In optimal conditions at least 60% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 2.4M seeds, per acre: 1,044M seeds. Rates are for raw, not pelleted seeds.
60Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. The softer and more humus-based the soil, the better. When soil is dry enough in spring, work it to a fine texture. Broadcast and dig in ½ cup complete organic fertilizer for every 3m (10') of row. Avoid fresh manure. Carrots will become misshapen, but still edible if they hit anything hard as they grow down into the soil. Keep weeded and watered. It is very important to thin carrots in order to allow them room to grow, and so they don't compete for available nutrients, moisture, and light. Then to 4-10cm (1½-4") when the young plants are 2cm (1") tall. Use wider spacing to get larger roots. As they grow, carrots push up, out of the soil, so hill soil up to prevent getting a green shoulder.full sunwell drainedrich50 gramsDragons have dark red to purple skins, but a regular orange carrot interior. Packed with nutrients, Dragons look great raw or cooked.

Carrots are second only to beets in sugar content, and they're packed with beta carotene, vitamins, minerals, and fibre. They also happen to be delicious and easy to grow!

Carrots can be harvested at any size, but flavour is best when the carrot has turned bright orange. After harvest, store at cold temperatures just above 0ºC. You can store in sand or sawdust, or simply leave carrots under heaped soil in the garden during the winter, and pull as you need them.

The Carrot Rust Fly - This pest lays its eggs at the base of the growing carrots. The larva of the fly chews tunnels and unsightly grooves through the surface of the root, causing rot. Unfortunately the damage isn't just cosmetic; the activities of the Carrot Rust Fly larva changes the flavour of the carrot and makes it quite inedible. Use our floating row cover to keep the adults away from the carrots. Plant after the beginning of June to avoid the first and worst infestation period. The good news for apartment dwellers who want to grow carrots on their balconies is the Carrot Rust Fly is not a good flyer. It is unlikely to infest their high-rise crop.

Wireworm - These are the larva of click beetles. They are about an inch and a half long, slender and reddish brown. When squeezed they turn as rigid as a wire, hence the name. Wireworms chew irregular holes through roots, making the carrots inedible. Wireworms prefer a moist soil so preparing your carrot bed so that it is well drained will help. Interplanting with mustard leaf is an excellent way to discourage wireworm damage. The flavour of the mustard is one deterrent, and mustard also helps to dry out the soil, forcing the wireworm away from the roots.

Predatory nematodes are an effective control for both Carrot Rust Fly and wireworm. Apply generously in the spring when the larva of both pests is most active.

Magnesium, PotassiumFood
188Carrots, Purple HazeApiaceaeDaucus carota (dg fo pf wp)7950 eachDeep purple on the outside, but bright orange inside. The sweet tasting roots gracefully taper to 25cm long. Purple Haze was an AAS winner in 2006 and one of the most nutritious carrot varieties available. Easy and different!Magnesium, Potassium, Vitamin AFood
189Cauliflower, Wintering - AalsmeerBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-22 00:00:0018 each starts in greenhouse soiltransplant50 eachFood
5Century Plant; Chisos AgaveAgavaceaeAgave havardiana (dg fo pf wp)Sow seed just beneath surface of fast-draining soil and keep warm until germ. Germ easy and quick. Work up seedlings in successively larger pots. Plants do appreciate root constriction so start with small (2 inch) pots and transplant up only when the roots have fully filled that pot.As a landscape plant, Agave prefers full sun to light shade, fast-draining soil and scant water throughout the growing season.full sunwell drained20 eachHardiness: To -5 degrees F, but much more tolerant of dry cold than wet cold. For all practical purposes, a good outdoor plant for zone 7 and up, a good choice perhaps for a sheltered spot in Utah, a bad choice for the open garden in maritime Washington. Grows excellently in pots, long-lived and easily cared for, and thrives in our naturalized greenhouses in Southern Oregon.

Perennial succulent native to mid elevations of Texas, New Mexico and Mexico. The plant makes a bold rosette of spiny-tipped, fat, leathery and succulent leaves, giving occasional rise to the 12 foot flowering spike garlanded with reddish-yellow flowers. The popular opinion that the plant blooms only once in a century and then dies is a bit of a myth (sorry about that).

Agave produces a sweet juice that can be concentrated into a superior sweetener, fermented to make an alcoholic beverage (e.d. tequila) and is also used as-is as an herbal medicine for treating irritable bowel syndrome, urinary problems, and menstrual woes. It is a superior medicinal agent.
Fuel, Sweetening
21Chameleon Plant; Yu-xing-cao; TsiSaururaceaeHouttoynia cordata (dg fo pf wp)60Sow seed in cool soils of early spring. Mix small seed with sand and sprinkle on surface, then barely cover with soil, tamp down securely and keep evenly moist and in the light until germination, which can take 60 to 90 days. Once seedlings have sized up, individuate to pots and grow out that way until they are large enough to transplant outdoors.Plant prefers moist garden soil in the sun to partial shade. We were able to make it thrive in an unheated greenhouse here in our zone 7 during February (brr.). Easily grown in containers, the plant will spread in open fertile beds.sun or partial shademoist100 eachCreeping herbaceous perennial native to China. Stolons and leaves used as an aromatic and tasty condiment. This plant is very easily grown and will diversify any cuisine. We recommend to market growers, connoisseurs, restaurant owners and inventive householders. The medicine Yu-xing-cao is used to treat infections of the lungs and urinary tract and the herb is efficaciously used in anticancer therapies. This is one of the many plants used by the Chinese to diversify their diets and in so doing to avoid degenerative disease.Food, Fragrance, Seasoning
323ChamomileAsteraceaeChamaemelum nobile (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-24 00:00:0056 each starts in greenhouse soiltransplantSeed - sow March in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not let the compost dry out. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring. Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 5cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer. Tolerates most well-drained soils, preferring a dry sandy soil and a sunny position[4, 37, 200]. Tolerates partial shade[16]. Established plants are drought tolerant[190]. Can be grown in grass[54]. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.8 to 8. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c[200]. They often deteriorate in very wet or cold winters, but usually recover quickly in the spring and early summer[238]. Chamomile is commonly grown in the domestic herb garden, it is also cultivated commercially for its flowers which are used in herb teas and medicinally. The double-flowered form is highly regarded for its medicinal virtues[165]. Plants can be invasive when growing in good conditions[188], though they are easy to control[K]. There is some confusion between this plant (which is a perennial) and the annual chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) as to which is the genuine medicinal chamomile. Some reports say that this plant is the most effective herbally[4], whilst others says that Matricaria is more potent[9]. Both plants seem to have very similar properties and either can probably be used quite successfully. Camomile is a very good companion plant, promoting the health of plants it is growing close to, it is especially good for growing near cabbages, onions and, in small quantities, wheat[4, 14, 20, 54, 201, 238]. The cultivar 'Treneague' is a low-growing non-flowering form that makes an excellent ground cover[197]. Fairly tolerant of being walked on, it is sometimes used instead of grass for making a lawn though it is more difficult to maintain and can become weed infested, especially in its early stages[200]. It also tends to become bare in places[208]. The whole plant has a pungent aroma, this being especially noticeable on hot days or when the plant is bruised. Ground Cover; Lawn; Cultivated Beds; East Wall. In. South Wall. In. West Wall. In.sun or partial shadewell drainedpoorCamomile is a common herb with a long history of safe and effective medicinal use - it is widely used as a household herbal remedy. It is particularly useful as a remedy for various problems of the digestive system, as a sedative and a nervine, it is especially suited for young children[4, 20, 21]. A tea is made from the flowers and this should be prepared in a closed vessel to prevent loss of the essential oils[4]. The flowers are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, nervine, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator[4, 14, 21, 37, 165, 201]. The single-flowered form is the most potent medicinally, though it can in large doses damage the lining of the stomach and bowels[4]. For this reason, the double-flowered form is usually preferred since this contains less of the alkaloid that causes the problem[4]. The flowers are gathered in the summer when they are fully open and are distilled for their oil or dried for later use[238]. They should not be stored for longer than 12 months[238]. The whole herb is used to make a lotion for external application in the treatment of toothache, earache, neuralgia etc[4]. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is 'Soothing'[210]. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Chamaemelum nobile for coughs and bronchitis, fevers and colds, inflammations of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, tendency to infection - improve immunity, wounds and burns (see [302] for critics of commission E).

An infusion of the flowers is used as a hair shampoo, especially for fair hair[14, 20, 168]. It is also used as a liquid feed and general plant tonic[14], effective against a number of plant diseases[18, 20, 201]. It has fungicidal properties and its use is said to prevent damping off in seedlings[238]. The flowers are an ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator[32]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K]. The whole plant was formerly used as a strewing herb[4, 168]. The whole plant is insect repellent both when growing and when dried[14, 20]. An essential oil from the whole plant is used as a flavouring and in perfumery[46]. Yellow to gold dyes are obtained from the flowers[168]. The plant makes a very good ground cover[197] and can also be used as an edging plant[200]. It does tend to become bare in patches[208].

Anodyne, Antiinflammatory, Antispasmodic, Aromatherapy, Compost, Dye, Essential, Food, Fungicide, Insect repellant, Nervine, Stomachic, Strewing, Tonic, Vasodilator
190Chard, Swiss, multicolorChenopodiaceaeBeta vulgaris (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:0040 each seeds in 125cc blocksplant12Seed - sow in situ in early April for the summer crop and again in early July to August for the winter and spring crop. It is also possible to obtain an earlier crop by sowing the seed in a tray in a greenhouse in March and planting out in April/May[264].28cultivated bedsfull sunmoistrich0 eachFood
4Chaste TreeVerbenaceaeVitex agnus-castus (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:00112 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant21Standard greenhouse cultivation works best on these seeds, with germ after 3 or 4 weeks of warm, moist treatment.

Seed sow March in a warm greenhouse. The seed does not need pre-treatment. Germination is usually free and quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, November in a cold frame.

Prefers a light well-drained loamy soil in a warm sunny position sheltered from cold drying winds. Succeeds in dry soils. Intolerant of water-logging. Hardy to about -10°c.

Plants only flower freely in a warm summer, so they are best grown against a sunny wall even in areas of the country where they are hardy. The flowers are produced so late in the season that they are unlikely to produce viable seed in this country even if they flower properly.

A very ornamental plant, there are some named varieties. The whole plant is aromatic, the leaves and stems are strongly aromatic, the flowers are deliciously scented and the dried seeds have a pungent lemony perfume.

This species has long been regarded as a symbol of chastity. Flowers are produced at the ends of the current year's growth. Any pruning is best carried out in the spring and should consist of cutting out dead wood and shortening last year's flowering branches.
Germ: warm, moist, greenhouse.well drainedloam100 eachThe leaves and flowers exude exotic aromas. Seeds regulate hormones and support breast health.

Used for thousands of years for its beneficial affect on the female hormonal system. Prolonged usage restores corpus luteum function.

The berries of this plant have a range of medicinal actions but possibly the most important is its ability to rectify hormonal imbalances caused by an excess of oestrogen and an insufficiency of progesterone. It acts upon the pituitary gland, reducing the production of certain hormones and increasing the production of others, shifting the balance in favour of the gestagens. Thus it has a wide application of uses in malfunctions of the feminine reproductive system and has been used with great effect in restoring absent menstruation, regulating heavy periods, restoring fertility when this is caused by hormonal imbalance, relieving pre-menstrual tension and easing the change of menopause.

Some caution is advised since excessive doses can cause a nervous disorder known as formication, which manifests as a sensation of insects crawling over the skin.

The berries are considered to be an aphrodisiac, though other reports say that they are anaphrodisiac. The reason for this apparent disagreement is that the berries have a regulating effect on the body and so are likely to increase sexual activity in those who are not very active in this area whilst reducing it in those who are very active. The fresh berries are pounded to a pulp and used in the form of a tincture for the relief of paralysis, pains in the limbs, weakness etc.

Other uses include: reduced flatulence, suppress appetite and induce sleep. Unproven uses include: treatment of impotence, prostatitis, swelling of the testes, sterility, swelling of the ovaries.

A perfume is made from the flowers. Young stems are used in basket making. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves, the seed and the roots. Wood - hard, close grained.
Anaphrodisiac, Aphrodisiac, Basketry, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Dye, Essential, Febrifuge, Fragrance, Galactogogue, Infertility, Ophthalmic, Seasoning, Sedative, Stomachic, Wood
22ChervilApiaceaeAnthriscus cerefolium (dg fo pf wp)Direct seed in the spring garden. Cutting back regularly and sowing in succession will keep chervil herb coming to the tabvle throughout the season. Very fast to make edible leaf.Prefers a cool, moist location where it will put on a great deal of green herb without bolting.100 eachHardiness: The plant will perform well in any garden in the summertime and is a good winter crop in maritime gardens or in the winter greenhouse, even if the greenhouse is unheated.

Hardy annual native to Europe, growing to about 12 inches and with a mounding habit. Chervil has a reputation of repelling slugs. The plants are petite and the flavor is very fine. It is a gourmet parsley-like plant that is used in seasoning vegetables, meat dishes, omelettes, soups, and for making salad dressing.

This is a culinary herb that is also used as a diuretic and blood-purifier and carminative (digestive agent).

The herb is experiencing a renaissance of popularity, and is very saleable in salad mixes or as a plant in a pot.
Carminative, Diuretic, Insect Repellant, Seasoning
263Chestnut, AmericanFagaceaeCastanea dentata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-02 00:00:0010 each starts in outdoor soiltransplantSeed: where possible sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in a seed bed outdoors. The seed must be protected from mice and squirrels. The seed has a short viability and must not be allowed to become dry. It can be stored in a cool place, such as the salad compartment of a fridge, for a few months if it is kept moist, but check regularly for signs of germination. The seed should germinate in late winter or early spring. If sown in an outdoor seedbed, the plants can be left in situ for 1 - 2 years before planting them out in their permanent positions. If grown in pots, the plants can be put out into their permanent positions in the summer or autumn, making sure to give them some protection from the cold in their first winter.

Coppices readily.

Prefers a good well-drained slightly acid loam but succeeds in dry soils and in hot sunny sites. Once established, it is very drought tolerant. Very tolerant of highly acid, infertile dry sands.

Averse to calcareous soils but succeeds on harder limestones. Although it is very winter-hardy, this species only really thrives in areas with hot summers. A tree at Kew in 1985 was 15 metres tall and thriving.

At one time widely cultivated in N. America for its edible seed, it is now virtually extinct in the wild due to chestnut blight. Trees are possibly becoming resistant, some suckering stands in America are producing fruit. Suckers often reach 4 - 6 metres tall before succumbing to blight, but they rarely manage to produce fruit.

An excellent soil-enriching understorey in pine forests. Flowers are produced on wood of the current year's growth. Plants are fairly self-sterile. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Dry, gravelly or rocky, mostly acid soils. This species is extremely rare, due to chestnut blight.sun or partial shadewell drainedpoor10 startsA warm water infusion of the leaves has been used to calm the respiratory nerves and promote expectoration. The infusion has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough but modern opinion is that the leaves are no more than a mild astringent.

Edible seeds, raw or cooked. Rather on the small side, but these are the sweetest seeds of any species in this genus. The seed contains about 7% fat, 11% protein. It can be dried, ground into powder and then be added to cereals when making bread, cakes etc. A delicious oil can be extracted from the seed by crushing the nuts, boiling them in water and then skimming off the oil as it comes to the surface. It can be used as a topping for various puddings. The roasted nut can be used as a coffee substitute and a chocolate substitute can also be made from it.

The bark is a good source of tannin. The dried leaves contain 9% tannin. The wood and the seed husks also contain tannin. The husks contain 10 - 13% tannin.

A brown dye is obtained from the bark. Wood - soft, not strong, light, very durable, liable to warp. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot. Easy to split, it is used for making cheap furniture, fence posts, in construction etc.
Fat, ProteinAstringent, Dye, Expectorant, Food, Fuel, Oil, Tannin, Wood
23Cilantro; Coriander; Thai ParsleyApiaceaeCoriandrum sativum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-07 00:00:00520 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow directly in the garden bed. Germination can be a bit cranky, so be patient. Sow starting in the early spring, in successions 3 weeks apart, in order to assure ongoing availability of the fresh herb.30Plant prefers full sun and regular garden soil.full sungarden200 eachAnnual. 30 days to cilantro, 60 days to coriander.

Harvest the shining, smooth leaves before the plant flowers for use as the culinary spice Cilantro in cooking and in salsa. Harvest the seeds and use them as Coriander, a curry ingredient and also a respected medicinal herb.

Medicinally, the fresh or dried herb and seeds chelate heavy metals and help move them out of the body—this includes mercury and lead. The seeds are especially stimulant, aromatic and carminative. Combine fresh green coriander seeds with spilanthes buds and extract together in alcohol for a mouthwash experience that surpasses everything with the possible exception of a crisp ripe apple right off the tree. Interestingly, we invented this combination spontaneously and only later found out that coriander helps the body chelate mercury that might be seeping from old fillings.

RECIPE FOR CHELATION SALSA Here’s our recipe for “Chelation Salsa” 2 cups chopped fresh cilantro 2 cups chopped fresh tomato 1 cup chopped fresh basil ½ cup chopped pumpkin seeds 4 cloves garlic, chopped and pressed Hot peppers to taste 1 TBS lemon juice 2 TBS olive oil

Salt to taste
Carminative, Seasoning, Stimulant
293Clover, whiteFabaceaeTrifolium reptans (dg fo pf wp)Seeds: Pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in situ. If the seed is in short supply it might be better to sow it in pots in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in late spring.

Division: in spring[238].

Succeeds in a moist, well-drained circum-neutral soil in full sun, preferring a sweet calcareous clay soil.

Succeeds in poor soils.

Dislikes growing with henbane or members of the buttercup family[18]. Buttercups growing nearby depress the growth of the nitrogen bacteria by means of a root exudate[201].

It grows well in an apple orchard, the trees will produce tastier fruit that stores better[201].

It should not be grown with camellias or gooseberries because it harbours a mite that can cause fruit drop in the gooseberries and premature budding in the camellias[201].

Polymorphic, there are many subspecies and varieties. Some varieties have also been selected for use in lawn mixes[183].

This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].
Grassland and lawns, preferring a calcareous clay soil[9, 17].full sunwell drainedclay3500 gramsA very important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[30] it is also a good bee plant[54]. A good companion plant in the lawn, tolerating trampling[18, 54].NitrogenAntirheumatic, Antiscrophulatic, Beverage, Depurative, Detergent, Food, Green manure, Ophthalmic, Tonic
193Corn, Heirloom, white open pollinatedPoaceaeZea mays (dg fo pf wp)40 eachCarbohydrateFood
191Corn, Peaches and CreamPoaceaeZea mays (dg fo pf wp)40 eachCarbohydrateFood
192Corn, Pink PopcornPoaceaeZea mays (dg fo pf wp)48575 eachEarly maturing popcorn on 1.5m tall plants with two ears each. Produces fluffy white, flavourful popcorn from attractive mauve kernel.CarbohydrateFood
194Cucumber, MarketmoreCucurbitaceaeCucumis sativus (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-18 00:00:00121 each starts in greenhouse soiltransplant8Planting: sow indoors 3-4 weeks prior to last frost or direct seed after all risk of frost. For indoor plantings use 2 inches square pots. Plant seeds 0.5-1 inch deep, transplant or space plants 6 inches apart in row. Plants are tender, so soil should be warm 65-75 degrees germination to begin. If growing on a trellis, space plants 18 inches apart.55full sunmoist310 each(Territorial Seed Company) A great slicing cucumber, and one of the most disease-resistant. Bitter-free and burp less. Vines up to 6' long. This northern cultivar bears loads of 9"-11" straight, white spined cukes.Food
3Dang-gui; Tang-kuei; Dong-quaiApiaceaeAngelica sinensis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:00116 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow seed in fall or early spring, on surface of soil, and press in well, and keep moist until germination. Cold soil germinator. Very trustworthy seed.

Seed best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe since the seed only has a short viability. Seed can also be sown in the spring, though germination rates will be lower. It requires light for germination. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in the spring. The seed can also be sow in situ as soon as it is ripe.

Requires a deep moist fertile soil in dappled shade or full sun. This species is not fully hardy in colder areas, tolerating temperatures down to at least -5°c. Plants are reliably perennial if they are prevented from setting seed.
Plant prefers part shade and moist soils.sun or partial shademoistgardenHardy to all temperate zones. Herbaceous monocarp native to China. Deeply cut leaves unfold from the meaty crown, subtended by the characteristically smoky smelling root, giving rise to the flowers that unfold and adorn the plant in late fall and sometimes make their seed after winter has commenced.

One of the most useful women's herbs of all times -- balances and regulates hormones. Dang Gui is a well-known Chinese herb that has been used in the treatment of female ailments for thousands of years. Its reputation is perhaps second only to ginseng (Panax ginseng) and it is particularly noted for its 'blood tonic' effects on women.

The root has a sweet pungent aroma that is very distinctive and it is often used in cooking, which is the best way to take it as a blood tonic. One report says that the root contains vitamin B12 and can be used in the treatment of pernicious anaemia. It is commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of women's complaints where it regulates the menstrual cycle and relieves period pain and also to ensure a healthy pregnancy and easy delivery.

However conflicting information suggests it should not be used during pregnancy and should not be used if menstrual flow is heavy or during menstration. It is an ideal tonic for women with heavy menstruation who risk becoming anaemic. The water-soluble and non-volatile elements of the root increase the contraction of the uterus whilst the volatile elements can relax the muscle of the uterus. Its use prevents the decrease of liver glycogen and protects the liver. Used for menopausal symptoms (hot flushes).

It has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of various bacteria including Bacillus dysenteriae, Bacillus typhi, B. comma, B. cholerae and haemolytic streptococci.

The root is an ingredient of 'Four Things Soup', the most widely used woman's tonic in China. The other species used are Rehmannia glutinosa, Ligusticum wallichii and Paeonia lactiflora.

The root is harvested in the autumn or winter and dried for later use. It has been used to treat pulmonary hypertension in combination with the allopathic medication nifedipine. Other uses include: constipation (a laxative), trauma injuries, ulcers, rheumatism and malaria.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)Alterative, Analgesic, Anticholesterolemic, Antiinflammatory, Antispasmodic, Deobstruent, Emollient, Hepatic, Laxative, Ornamental, Seasoning, Sedative, Vasodilator
241DillApiaceaeAnethum graveolens (dg fo pf wp)0 eachSeasoning
1Dragon TreeAgavaceaeDracaena draco (dg fo pf wp)30Scarify the large, roundish seeds by rubbing on medium grit sandpaper and plant 1/2 to 1 inch deep in warm Cactus mix. Tamp well and keep evenly moist but not too wet. Best to sow in a greenhouse or under grow lights. Planting seeds such as this in a bed in the summer garden would be a bit absurd, I think. Plant at least 3 seeds per pot. Bottom heat is helpful. Germ takes 30 to 90 days, and this seed demonstrates ongoing germ. Keep plants in potted culture (the photo is of one of my year-old individuals) or if environment permits, plant outdoors at a spacing of at least 30 feet apart.Protect from frost. Does well in pots. Bottom heat for sprouting. Prefers mesic to dry conditions, well-drained soil, and sun to part shade.sun or partial shadewell drained20 eachTree-like monocot to 25 feet tall and equally as broad. Native to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde and Morocco. Widely cultivated as a curio worthy of the finest botanical gardens. Anyone in the Western US that wants to see a really sweet stand of these comely trees, with their solid trunks and palm-like foliage, can find them at San Diego Botanic Garden. Although a mature stand of these trees in zone 8 look great, they also do very nicely in pots. Surely one of the most unusual trees on earth, they appear to be "not from earth." The flowers are white and deeply perfumed. Dragon tree is one of the several sources for the aromatic, garnet-red resin known as "Dragon's Blood." This is an ancient herbal agent used to treat wounds. It makes a kind of stretchy, antiseptic bandage when dribbled on a cut or abrasion. Dragon's Blood is used for treating a plethora of other dismal maladies including diarrhea, ulcerations and eczema. Historically and within the cultures where this plant is well known, the dragon's blood resin was and is utilized as a kind of panacea. Skinned your knee? Dragon's Blood. HIV? Dragon's blood. Too tired to flee? Dragon's blood…Antiseptic, Fragrance, Ornamental
31Dream Root; Xhosa; White Ways; White Path; African Dream Root; African Dream HerbCaryophyllaceaeSilene carpensis, undulata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:0040 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow the seed directly in the garden in the spring or sow anytime in the greenhouse. Barely cover seed with soil, tamp firmly and keep evvenly moist and warm until germination, which takes 1 to 2 weeks. Thin or transplant to 1 foot apart. I consider effective harvest to be anytime the roots reach a reasonable size (1/8 inch diameter or so), although the literature does specify harvest in the second year.The plant prefers full sun and fast-draining soil but is not particularly picky and can be grown as a troublefree mounding plant in most gardens.full sunwell drained30 eachLow-growing herbaceous perennial 1 to 2 feet tall, native to the cape of South Africa. Softly spreading leafy rosette produces multiple stalks crowned by the pure white flower. Unlike other members of the Silene genus, the calyx is elongated and not particularly inflated. The plant is easy to grow as a wayside attraction, spreads healthily but not invasively, producing many handsome flowers that smell excellently of jasmine and clove. The root of this plant is an "oneirogen," that is a dream inducer. A small piece of the fresh root, chewed at any time during the day or evening, will tend to stimulate vivid, even lucid, dreaming once one falls asleep. This is an effect that the plant seems to produce without a lot of fanfare, and my experimentation seems to indicate that ingesting a small (1/2 inch or so) piece of the fresh root produces a fantastic dreamscape despite the complete lack of waking effect, and no adverse effects or aftereffects, mental or physical. The plant is considered to be on par with the more well-known oneirogen Calea zacatechichi. The Xhosa people of South Africa use the plant to stimulate "prophetic" dreaming during shamanic episodes.Fragrance, Oneirogen, Ornamental
2Elderberry, Black; Black Elder; Elder BerryCaprifoliaceaeSambucus nigra (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-23 00:00:00182 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSoak berries overnight, smash them, and remove the seeds. Sow in outdoor conditions, in pots or flats, and expect germination in the spring. Alternatively, you may wish to remove the seeds from the fruits and then store the seeds in moist medium in a sealed plastic bag or jar in the refrigerator (not the freezer) for 90 days, then remove from fridge and sow. The best conditions for germination are cool, moist shade. We find that this method is pretty reliable. Elderberries will not grow properly in sterile soil. Sow seeds in very rich and composty soil medium. The breakdown of fungi in the soil will produce gibberellic acid, a growth hormone which is helpful for germination. Once germinated, the seedling grows very rapidly into a handsome bush or small tree. Grow out in a shaded place in pots for a year before transplanting to final location.

Seed best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, when it should germinate in early spring. Stored seed can be sown in the spring in a cold frame but will probably germinate better if it is given 2 months warm followed by 2 months cold stratification first. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If good growth is made, the young plants can be placed in their permanent positions during the early summer. Otherwise, either put them in a sheltered nursery bed, or keep them in their pots in a sheltered position and plant them out in spring of the following year.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame.

Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 15 - 20cm with a heel, late autumn in a frame or a sheltered outdoor bed[78].

Division of suckers in the dormant season.

A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and situations, growing well on chalk, but prefers a moist loamy soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates some shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Tolerates atmospheric pollution and coastal situations.

The elder is very occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties though most of these have been developed for their ornamental value. The sub-species S. nigra alba has white/green fruits that are nicer than the type species and are quite nice raw.

The elder also has a very long history of folk use, both medicinally and for a wide range of other uses. All in all it is a very valuable plant to have in the garden. The leaves often begin to open as early as January and are fully open in April. The leaves fall in October/November in exposed sites, later in sheltered positions. Young stems can be killed by late frosts but they are soon replaced from the ground level.

Very tolerant of pruning, plants can be cut back to ground level and will regrow from the base.

The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly pleasant for it has fishy undertones, but from a distance its musky scent is appealing.

Very resistant to the predations of rabbits. The flowers are very attractive to insects. The fruit is very attractive to birds and this can draw them away from other cultivated fruits.

The elder is an early colonizer of derelict land, the seed arriving in the defecations of birds and mammals. It is a very good pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
127It's probably a good idea to grow 3 trees for pollination purposes, although we have certainly seen good crops of fruit from a single tree grown in isolation. Elderberries are best placed as an understory to a higher tree canopy. Will also grow in full sun if the roots are kept cool and moist.sun or partial shademoistloam50 eachPerennial, deciduous, multistemmed bush to small tree native to Europe. Wild form. This is the most tried-and-true species for medicinal use, and the berries are very tasty, and about twice as big as the berries of other species. Elderberry berries are rich in anthocyanins, bioflavonoids, vitamins and antioxidants.

The syrup, tincture or glycerite of the berries is excellent for treating the common cold and for overall increase in immunity. The fresh green leaves may be infused in olive oil to make an emollient embrocation for treating sunburn, rough skin, age spots, and/or diaper rash (normally individuals will not have both age spots and diaper rash, but it can happen). Truly, all parts of the plant may be used in herbal medicine, and this is much expanded upon in my book "Making Plant Medicine."

Flowers generally appear in year 3. Flowers turn rapidly into heavy clusters of fruits.

Elder has a very long history of household use as a medicinal herb and is also much used by herbalists. The plant has been called 'the medicine chest of country people'.

The flowers are the main part used in modern herbalism, though all parts of the plant have been used at times. The inner bark is collected from young trees in the autumn and is best sun-dried. It is diuretic, a strong purgative and in large doses emetic. It is used in the treatment of constipation and arthritic conditions.

An emollient ointment is made from the green inner bark.

The leaves can be used both fresh or dry. For drying, they are harvested in periods of fine weather during June and July. The leaves are purgative, but are more nauseous than the bark. They are also diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and haemostatic.

The juice is said to be a good treatment for inflamed eyes. An ointment made from the leaves is emollient and is used in the treatment of bruises, sprains, chilblains, wounds etc.

The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water'. The flowers can be preserved with salt to make them available for distillation later in the season. The water is mildly astringent and a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin lotions. The dried flowers are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, galactogogue and pectoral. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes. The infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser.

Externally, the flowers are used in poultices to ease pain and abate inflammation. Used as an ointment, it treats chilblains, burns, wounds, scalds etc. The fruit is depurative, weakly diaphoretic and gently laxative. A tea made from the dried berries is said to be a good remedy for colic and diarrhoea.

The fruit is widely used for making wines, preserves etc., and these are said to retain the medicinal properties of the fruit. The pith of young stems is used in treating burns and scalds.

The root is no longer used in herbal medicine but it formerly had a high reputation as an emetic and purgative that was very effective against dropsy.

A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh inner bark of young branches. It relieves asthmatic symptoms and spurious croup in children.

The plant is a valuable addition to the compost heap, its flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator and the roots of the plant improve fermentation of the compost heap when growing nearby.

The leaves are used as an insect repellent, very effective when rubbed on the skin though they do impart their own unique fragrance. They can be powdered and placed amongst plants to act as a deterrent, or made into a spray when they act as an insecticide. This is prepared by boiling 3 - 4 handfuls of leaves in a litre of water, then straining and allowing to cool before applying. Effective against many insects, it also treats various fungal infections such as leaf rot and powdery mildew. The dried flowering shoots are used to repel insects, rodents etc.

The flowers are used in skin lotions, oils and ointments. Tolerant of salt-laden gales, this species can be grown as a shelter hedge in exposed maritime areas, it is rather bare in the winter though.

This is an excellent pioneer species to use when re-establishing woodlands. It is very tough and wind-resistant, grows quickly and provides shelter for longer-lived and taller woodland species to establish. It will generally maintain itself in the developing woodland, though usually in the sunnier positions.

A dye is obtained from the fruit and the bark. The bark of older branches and the root have been used as an ingredient in dyeing black. A green dye is obtained from the leaves when alum is used as a mordant. The berries yield various shades of blue and purple dyes. They have also been used as a hair dye, turning the hair black.

The blue colouring matter from the fruit can be used as a litmus to test if something is acid or alkaline. It turns green in an alkaline solution and red in an acid solution.

The pith in the stems of young branches pushes out easily and the hollow stems thus made have been used as pipes for blowing air into a fire. They can also be made into musical instruments. The pith of the wood is used for making microscope slides and also for treating burns and scalds. The mature wood is white and fine-grained. It is easily cut and polishes well. Valued highly by carpenters, it has many used, for making skewers, mathematical instruments, toys etc.

Fruit eaten raw or cooked. The flavour of the raw fruit is not acceptable to many tastes, though when cooked it makes delicious jams, preserves, pies and so forth. It can be used fresh or dried, the dried fruit being less bitter. The fruit is used to add flavour and colour to preserves, jams, pies, sauces, chutneys etc, it is also often used to make wine.

The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and is borne in large clusters. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Flowers eaten raw or cooked. They can also be dried for later use. The flowers are crisp and somewhat juicy, they have an aromatic smell and flavour and are delicious raw as a refreshing snack on a summers day, though look out for the insects. The flowers are used to add a muscatel flavour to stewed fruits, jellies and jams (especially gooseberry jam). They are often used to make a sparkling wine.

A sweet tea is made from the dried flowers. The leaves are used to impart a green colouring to oils and fats.
Antiinflammatory, Aperient, Beverage, Compost, Cosmetic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emollient, Expectorant, Food, Forage, Fungicide, Galactogogue, Haemostatic, Hedge, Immunostimulant, Insect Repellant, Insecticide, Laxative, Litmus, Ophthalmic, Pioneer, Pipes, Purgative, Salve, Stimulant, Wood
28Epazote; WormseedChenopodiaceaeChenopodium ambrosioides (dg fo pf wp)Strew seed on surface of sandy soil and keep moist until germination.Plant prefers full sun and does well in waste ground.full sun100 eachPerennial wormwood-like plant is the source of a potent spice and vermifuge. The dried leaf is traditionally mixed in bean dishes, a tasty practice that also allays flatus. In sufficient dosage, and especially if the seeds are taken by themselves, the plant will aid in expulsion of intestinal worms.Calcium, Manganese, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, PotassiumCarminative, Seasoning
27Evening PrimroseOnagraceaeOenothera biennis (dg fo pf wp)Easy cultivation. Scatter seed on surface of disturbed soil in fall or early spring, or start on surface of flat and transplant. Seed requires exposure to light in order to germinate. Plant 12 inches apart.drought tolerantHardiness: All temperate zones.

Self-seeding overwintering annual or biennial. Native to Europe and North America. This herb is very drought tolerant, bravely producing bloom after yellow, mucilaginous bloom in the evenings, despite sun-baked conditions.

The seed is high in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an intermediate in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Some women report alleviation of PMS by eating the plant and the seeds.

The flowers especially make a tasty addition to salads.

Flowers to 3 to 4 feet.
Food
311Fun JenBrassicaceaeBrassica rapa (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-10 00:00:00144 each starts in outdoor soiltransplantDirect sow early March to late April, and again mid August to early September. Just covered. Thin to 20 cm and keep moist.45full sunmoistrichA good lettucy-type Chinese cabbage featuring fast-growing undulating leaves with a slightly wrinkly surface. Semi-loose conical very light yellow-green ruffled 6x10" heads of crunchy texture and very mild delicate flavor somewhat like lettuce. The thick white ribs are tasty with a pleasing light tangy sweetness. Excellent frost resistance but will bolt in heat after standing 2–4 weeks. Stores very well. Seed from Known-You in Taiwan.Food
32Goat's RueFabaceaeGalega officinalis (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-05 00:00:0051 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantScarify seed by rubbing on sandpaper. Pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow the seed in spring or autumn in a cold frame. Spring-sown seed can be slow to germinate, a period of cold stratification may improve the germination time. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. If you have sufficient seed, then it is possible to sow outdoors in situ in mid to late spring. DIVISION in spring or autumn. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.Plant prefers poor garden soil and full sun. Difficult to get this herb these days, and international trade and some domestic trade in this species has been disallowed due to the misconception that it is an invasive weed. I've found that it disappears without care. Succeeds in most soils but repays generous treatment. Prefers full sun and a deep moist soil but it also succeeds in light shade. Grows well even in poor soils. Plants are very tolerant of neglect and can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be cut annually in the autumn. A long-lived plant, it can be invasive in good growing conditions.partial shademoistpoor50 eachThis is the most active of all galactagogue herbs. Promotes milk flow more reliably than anything I know (except childbirth). Works equally well for lactating human mothers and also domestic stock such as goats, horses and cows.

Goat's rue was once important in the treatment of plague, fevers and infectious diseases. It is still used in modern herbalism, though mainly for its effect in promoting milk-flow in lactating mothers (it has been shown to increase the flow of milk in cows and goats by 35 - 50%) and for its positive effect on the digestive system.

The plant contains galegine, an alkaloid that strongly reduces blood sugar levels which make it useful in the treatment of diabetes. The leaves and flowering tops are diaphoretic, diuretic, galactogogue and hypoglycaemic.

It has also been used in the treatment of fevers. It is taken internally to treat insufficient lactation, late-onset diabetes, pancreatitis and digestive problems, especially chronic constipation caused by a lack of digestive enzymes. The plant is harvested as it is just coming into flower and is dried for later use.

A fast-growing plant, it makes a good green manure crop, enriching the soil with organic matter and also fixing atmospheric nitrogen. The plant is used cosmetically in hand and foot bathes.

Leaves cooked and eaten like spinach.
NitrogenCosmetic, Curdling agent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Food, Forage, Galactogogue, Green manure, Hypoglycaemic
266Goji; Wolfberry; Chinese Matrimony Vine; Box ThornSolanaceaeLycium barbarum (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-31 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant7Plant prefers full sun and fast-drying soils. High desert conditions are quite conducive. Goji plants are drought-tolerant.

Seeds lose viability when removed from fruit. Soak dried berries in water overnight and remove the seeds from the softened fruits in the morning and plant them. Use a sandy potting soil medium. Sow the seeds just beneath the surface, tamp in, and keep in strong light. Water well to start, but back off on watering after germination, which occurrs in 1 to 2 weeks. Pot up seedlings and plant out to the landscape only after they are well-established.

Grow in greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Pinch out the shoot tips of the young plants in order to encourage bushy growth.

Cuttings: half-ripe wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel if possible, July/August in individual pots in a frame. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, autumn to late winter in a cold frame. High percentage.

Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Layering.

An easily grown plant, it does not require a rich soil, flowering and fruiting better in a well-drained soil of moderate quality. Succeeds in impoverished soils, but more fertile soils are best if the plant is being grown for its edible young shoots.

Requires a sunny position. Tolerates maritime exposure. There are some named varieties, selected for their ornamental value.

Plants are very tolerant of pruning and can regrow from old wood. Any trimming is best carried out in the spring. Plants produce suckers freely and can become invasive when in a suitable position. Otherwise they can be difficult to establish.
730Native to Northern China. Viney, likes something to grow on. Will spread on ground.sun or partial shadewell drainedpoor300 eachGoji berries are used fresh, juiced or (more commonly) dried and used like raisins.

They are a yin tonic, immune enhancing, and excellent for the overall health.

There is much confusion over the naming of this species. Most, if not all, of the plants being grown as L. chinense or L. europaeum are in fact this species.

Fruit: edible raw or cooked. The fruit is a berry about 2cm in diameter. A mild sweet liquorice flavour. Only the fully ripe fruits should be eaten.

Young shoots: edible cooked. Used mainly as a flavouring, they can also be lightly cooked for 3 - 4 minutes and used as a vegetable, the flavour is somewhat cress-like but has also been described as peppermint-like.

Leaves: wilt rapidly once they have been harvested; used as a tea substitute.

A sweet tonic decoction made from the fruits is used to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. It acts mainly on the liver and kidneys. The fruit is taken internally in the treatment of high blood pressure, diabetes, poor eyesight, vertigo, lumbago, impotence and menopausal complaints.

The fruit is harvested when fully ripe and is dried for later use.

The root bark is a bitter, cooling, antibacterial herb that controls coughs and lowers fevers, blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. It is taken internally in the treatment of chronic fevers, internal haemorrhages, nosebleeds, tuberculosis, coughs, asthma etc. It is applied externally to treat genital itching. The bark is harvested in the winter and dried for later use.

The plant has a long history of medicinal use, both as a general, energy restoring tonic and also to cure a wide range of ailments from skin rashes and eyesight problems to diabetes. A tonic tea is made from the leaves.

The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.
Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin EAntibacterial, Anticholesterolemic, Antipyretic, Beverage, Cancer, Diuretic, Food, Hedge, Hypoglycaemic, Ophthalmic, Purgative, Skin, Soil stabilization, Tonic, Vasodilator
33Goldenberry, Peruvian; Giant Groundcherry; TopotopoSolanaceaePhysalis peruviana (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-01 00:00:00240 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow in spring in pots and transplant. In temperate US, start early and cultivate as per tomatoes.

Germination usually takes place quickly and freely. Diurnal temperature fluctuations assist germination. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots of fairly rich soil when they are large enough to handle and plant them out after the last expected frosts. Consider giving them some protection such as a cloche until they are growing away well.

Division: in spring. This is best done without digging up the plant. Remove young shoots that are growing out from the side of the clump, making sure that some of the below ground shoot is also removed. It is best if this has some roots on, but the shoot should form new roots fairly quickly if it is potted up and kept for a few weeks in a shady but humid part of the greenhouse.
Plant prospers in rich soils, but actually produces more fruit in marginal soils. Excellent crop for the tropics, where ongoing high yields provide refreshing fruit and nutrition -- much yield for little effort.sun or partial shadewell drainedpoor100 eachShort-lived perennial. Native to the Andes -- a cultivated crop since Incan times. We are currently growing a select cultivar that is quick to produce myriads of light colored fruits. Nutritious fruit occurs in a decorative (purple streaked) inflated calyx.

Fruit is loaded with vitamin A, C and B. Contains unusually high levels of pectin and phosphorous. Fruit very sweet, like candy, a cross between cherry tomato and bing cherry, with a hint of cinnamon. I have seen a 3-year-old and a 5-year-old child in a patch of Goldenberry harvesting for personal use for an unbelievably long time period exceeding 5 minutes, stuffing mouths, stuffing pockets, and leaving a trail of husks behind them as they went.

Fruit: edible raw or cooked in pies, cakes, jellies, compotes, jams etc. A delicious bitter-sweet flavour, it has smaller but sweeter fruits than the cultivar 'Edulis'.

The dried fruit can be used as a raisin substitute, though it is not so sweet.

The plant conveniently wraps up each fruit in its own 'paper bag' (botanically, the calyx) to protect it from pests and the elements. This calyx is toxic and should not be eaten.

The fruit is rich in vitamin A (3000 I.U. of carotene per 100g), vitamin C and some of the B complex (thiamine, niacin and B12).

The protein and phosphorus levels are exceptionally high for a fruit. The fruit is a berry about 2cm in diameter.

The dried fruit is said to be a substitute for yeast. If picked carefully with the calyx intact, the fruit can be stored for 3 months or more.
Niacin, Phosphorous, Protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), Vitamin CDiuretic, Food, Vermifuge
236Grapes, frenchVitaceaeVitis vinifera (dg fo pf wp)18 eachFrom the Steinman Farm, Monroe, Michigan. Believed to be brought over from France by the Fix family, the original settlers.Food, Sweetening
195Ground cherrySolanaceaePhysalis pubescens (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood
37Horehound, WhiteLamiaceaeMarrubium vulgare (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-30 00:00:00208 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantScarify seeds and sow in early spring, directly in the garden or in pots. Space about 1 foot apart -- they are somewhat diminutive and will grow only about as tall as your knees.Plant prefers full sun and dryish, nutrient depleted soils. This is a plant that can literally be killed with love, so allow it to grow on the margins of the garden where water and nutrients grow thin.full sunwell drained50 eachHerbaceous perennial native to the American SW and hardy to 10 degrees F. The tea or decoction are traditionally used for treating the common cold and especially coughs -- a strong tea will knock almost anything out of your system. If you boil down the tea or decoction, then you end up with a syrupy substance (the soft extract) that can be combined with an equal amount of melted sugar and made into cough lozenges.Expectorant, Seasoning
251Jerusalem ArtichokeAsteraceaeHelianthus tuberosus (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood, Forage
196Kale, PurpleBrassicaceae0 eachFood
197Kale, RussianBrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea (dg fo pf wp)Seed - sow spring in situ.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shadewell drainedclay10000 eachFrom harvest 2011Food
204Leek, TadornaAlliaceaeAllium porrum (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-15 00:00:00400 each seeds in 8cc blocksdiscard0 eachFood
205Leek, VarnaAlliaceaeAllium porrum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-06 00:00:00140 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant702600 eachCertified Organic

The ultimate summer leek! Perfect for baby gourmet leeks. Left to mature, the white stalks are up to 35cm long. Varna grows very quickly. An excellent substitute for onions in many spi^s and meals. Timing: for autumn harvest, sow seeds indoors Feb-March and transplant outside in May. For an overwintering crop, sow winter-hardy varieties from March to mid-June. Seeding: For transplants, sow seed 1cm deep 1cm apart in rows 7cm apart in your tray. Move seedlings when pencil thick to a trench 15cm deep and wide, and bury to the first leaf joint apart in rows that are 30-45cm. Direct sow after last frost to same plant and row spacing as transplants. Growing: Heavy but well-drained soils, not suitable for oinions, will grow leeks well. Winter leeks will supply the table from October-April. Seed specs: Canada no1 germination standard: 65%

Usual seed life 1 year.
Food
198Lettuce, ButterheadAsteraceaeLactuca sativa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-03 00:00:00196 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant4500 eachDelicate and beautiful apple green, buttery leaves with bright red specks. Elegant for presentation, spectacular baby leaf, the tender heart is delicious. Food
199Lettuce, Looseleaf BruniaAsteraceaeLactuca sativa (dg fo pf wp)2013-05-30 00:00:00140 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant474700 eachA French heritage oaklead variety with long, slender and graceful leaves. Excellent for cut and ocme again use, its colours improves in cool weather. Food
201Lettuce, Looseleaf Red SailsAsteraceaeLactuca sativa (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-30 00:00:00400 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant4Sow outdoors April-July or start indoors 3-4 seeds every 3cm, transplant after 2 weeks, 25cm apart.66full sunmoist0 eachThe eaasiest to grow! Pick individual leaves daily, or harvest the whole head at once.

Lettuce is normally sown outdoors April-July. Cold frames allow you to snow in Feb-March and again in August/September. Seeding: Indoors sow 3-4 seeds every 3cm in sterile planting mix. Transplant after 2 weeks. Outdoors sow seed 2cm apart in short rows 45cm apart. Cover lightly. Space plants 25cm apart. Growing: 1cup of complete organic fertilizer per 3m of row will be adequate. Keep well watered for sweet leaves.

Seed specs: Canada #1 germination standard 70%
Food
200Lettuce, Speckled butterheadAsteraceaeLactuca sativa (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-15 00:00:00180 each seeds in 8cc blocks50% germ40 eachFood
202Lettuce, Winter densityAsteraceaeLactuca sativa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-13 00:00:00400 each in 8cc blocks50% germ4Seeding: directly seed 2cm apart in short rows and thin to the final spacing. Growing: Thin or transplant loose-leaf type to stand 20-25cm apart. Heading types should stand about 30cm apart. Lettuce rows can be 45cm apart. Water regularly to prevent leaves from getting bitter. Soil with lots of organic matter that drains freely is best. 65Lettuce grows best in cool weather, during the spring and fall. Start in April and plant every 2-3 weeks for continuous harvest. Mid-August plantings can stretch the harvest into winter. 280 eachFood
47LicoriceFabaceaeGlycyrrhiza glabra (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-01 00:00:0043 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantScarify the seed and sow in spring or in the warm greenhouse. Thin or transplant seedlings to 2 to 3 feet apart.Plant prefers full sun and dry, alkaline soils. Once established, the plants shoot up like a young willow thicket, setting erect lilac flowers that give way to the smooth pods. This is a great crop for people in Arizona, or at elevation in California, or any other place where the weather is clear, high and hot.full sunwell drained0 eachHerbaceous perennial native to the Mediterranean and to Russia. True, sweet variety. The root is a fine-flavored demulcent and expectorant. Licorice provides essential herbal treatment for chronic fatigue, adrenal exhaustion or gastric ulcer.

The part used is the stoloniferous root, which can be harvested after 2 or 3 years of growth.

A note on Licorice: The water extract (tea or decoction) extracts the desirable secondary constituents and leaves behind the bitter tannins. Direct alcoholic extraction (in the usual manner, alcohol on top of ground roots) produces an unsatisfactory result. Better to decoct the licorice first, strain and reduce the decoction by 50%, then preserve back with enough alcohol to result in a finished alcohol content of 20% (AA). This makes an excellent product that is preserved against deterioration.

Extended intake of licorice can result in sodium retension, so the dosage and length of therapy should be appropriately modulated.
NitrogenSweetening
49Maca, Red; Maca RojoBrassicaceaeLepidium peruvianum (dg fo pf wp)6Sow the seed on the surface of the seed bed, stir it around with your fingers, then tamp in securely. Thin to 6 inch spacing, and harvest after the first year of growth. For most localities, best to direct-seed in September and harvest in May or so, but if your winters are very snowy I don't think this will probably work. In the case of snowy winters (zone 6 and under) I would plant this as a quick fall or spring crop and harvest small roots. We planted MACA for three years before we worked out a reasonable scenario and took in our first good roots, then a seed crop. Also, anything of this nature depends on the weather patterns of the year in question. As always, we encourage experimentation and the feedback we're getting is encouraging -- positive reports have been received from New Jersey, Santa Cruz and North Dakota. As my teacher always said, "Keep trying."The plant is very tolerant of high intensity sunlight and withstands drastic temperature fluctuations. Plant prefers fall, winter and spring conditions for growth. Full sun and a fast-draining soil is preferred. Maca likes a somewhat alkaline soil, such as decomposed granite or volcanic soils. However, lacking this kind of soil, regular garden soil will do. Composted manures are a good fertilizer for MACA. I don't think the plant will overwinter in less than zone 6, unless perhaps in very dry sites or protected alpine locations. Here in Williams we get very little snow, and the plant grows through the winter, which is preferred, as it gives the plants time to mature, and encourages bulbing (the hypocotyl). If left in the field for 2 years, the root will become quite woody and the plant will go to seed. Probably the best regions for growing maca are high steppes in tropical or subtropical countries, although it is worthwhile to try planting almost anywhere because very little is known about the potential adaptability. All plantings will be experimental until reasonable methodology and timing are worked out.full sunwell drainedgarden100 eachBiennial, radish-like, rosette forming plant native to the high Peruvian Puna. This is a high elevation cultivar that is considered to be medicinally superior to other strains.

The first photo is of a seedling that was direct-seeded outdoors. The new seed is extremely viable and vigorous, giving over 90% germination in 6 days.

Second photo shows the red-purple coloration of the root, which is still at the stage prior to formation of bulbous hypocotyl.
Calcium, Carbohydrate, Iodine, Iron, ProteinAdaptogen, Aphrodisiac, Cancer, Food, Infertility, Nutritive, Tonic
83Mache, Jade; Corn Salad; Good King Henry; JadeValerianaceaeValerianella locusta (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-28 00:00:00120 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow in fall, midwinter, or spring—in successions. Mache is truly the tenderest of greens.50180 eachAnnual or overwintering annual, native to Europe. 50 days to maturity. "Jade" is a select cultivar with elongated, tender leaves. Gently demulcent and tasty salad green is considered to be one of the tonic herbs of spring, providing chlorophyll at times when edible greens can be scarce.Demulcent, Food
52MeadowsweetRosaceaeSpirea ulmaria (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-30 00:00:0080 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantThe seeds are slow to germinate and should be kept barely covered, cool, evenly moist, and in part shade. Pot up seedlings and work up to size before transplanting out. This usually takes 6 weeks in the spring greenhouse or in the summer shadehouse.Plant prefers rich, moisture retentive loam, plenty of water, and a part shade to full sun exposure.sun or partial shademoist200 eachHardiness: All temperate Zones Herbaceous perennial to about 4 feet. Native to temperate Europe and Asia. Multiple, arising from a spreading crown with delicate, ferny leaves, the flowering stalks bear masses of creamy flowers smelling like honey and mead. We specialize in this plant, which gives copious quantities of flowers that make a safe and effective analgesic tincture or tea. One of the most revered of all medicinal herbs from the European tradition. Anti-inflammatory and pain relieving, the plant is the source of salycilic acid. The word "asparin" was invented as a conjuncton of the Latin "a spirea" meaning "of Spirea."Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, Fragrance, Ornamental
235Melon, EarlichampCucurbitaceaeCitrullus lanatus (dg fo pf wp)510 eachFood
53Mint, MayanVerbenaceaeLippia dulcis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-19 00:00:0096 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantSow seed in flats in the early spring and work up the plants to transplantability, then transplant. Plant prefers full sun to part shade. Sow in spring.Protect from frost. We find that the plant prefers fast-draining but nutrient rich soils and drapes admirably over rock walls or other garden features. It will send out runners and root in, but it is severely effected by frost so for most gardeners in the temperate north invasiveness remains more of a goal than a problem.sun or partial shadewell drainedrich50 eachPerennial creeping plant with very showy purple leaves and upright cone-like flowers. Does well in pots. The taste is somewhat like stevia, but with aromatic overtones and no stevia aftertaste. This is a pre-sweetened tea herb, and it is really handsome in the garden, as well.Ornamental, Sweetening
55Mugwort, Western; White SagebrushAsteraceaeArtemisia ludoviciana (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:00300 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant7Sow in spring. Press hard into surface and keep moist until germ. Germination note on this seed: My trials showed a very high rate of germination (no, I didn't try to count those little specks -- what do you think, I have the eyes of a 20 year old? At this age, you learn to trust intuition more than vision...) in 7 days at 65 degrees F. Develop quickly from green specks to respectable seedlings. Very excited about having them.Plant prefers full sun to part shade and will thrive in dry, depleted soils.sun or partial shadewell drainedPatch-forming herbaceous perennial native to western and central US.The softly silvery-white and aromatic leaves give rise to dangling flowers of yellow. Used extensively by the Native Americans and currently much valued by local herbalists in the form of tea, spice, poultice and snuff. The plant is astringent, deodorant and very friendly to the touch—used in treating eczema, spider bite, stomachache, and menstrual woes.Astringent, Seasoning
203Mustard MixBrassicaceaeBrassica juncea (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood
254Nasturtiums, Seven Colour BlendTropaeolaceaeTropaeolum majus (dg fo pf wp)14Seed - sow spring in a pot emmersed to half its depth in water. Germination should take place within a couple of weeks. Prick out seedlings into individual pots whilst they are still small and increase the depth of water gradually until they are submerged. Plant out into a pond in the summer. Cuttings can be taken at any time in the growing season. Virtually any part of the plant, including a single leaf, will form roots if detached from the parent plant[56]. Just put it in a container of water until the roots are well formed and then plant out in shallow water.Pond; Bog Garden;full sunseasonal flooding102 eachFood, Ornamental
93Onion, Ailsa CraigAlliaceaeAllium cepa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-04 00:00:00120 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5Start indoors in February to mid-March, and transplant in April. Overwintering onions need to be started in early July, and transplanted by the middle of August, and will be ready in June. Scallions can be direct sown every 3 weeks from April to late August. Optimal soil temperature for germination: 21-25°C (70-75°F). Seeds will emerge in 6-12 days, depending on conditions.

Transplants are preferred for home gardeners. Sow 3 seeds 5mm-1cm (¼-½") deep in each cell of a 72-cell tray. Transplant as a clump, spacing each 12-15cm (5-6") apart in rows 45-75cm (18-30") apart. Scallions can be spaced at 2-5cm (1-2") apart in rows 15cm (6") apart.

In optimal conditions at least 75% of seeds should germinate. Usual seed life: 1 year. Per 100' row: 260 seeds (scallions 1.2M), per acre: 76M seeds (scallions 1,045M).
95Ideal pH: 5.5-6.5 (6.0-6.8 for scallions). Fertile and well-drained soil in full sun is essential. Add well-rotted compost and dig ½-1 cup copmlete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each 3m (10') of row. Keep moisture high in the top 20-30cm (8-12") of soil. Most of the bulb should form on the surface of the soil, so don't transplant too deeply. Bulb size is dependent on the size of the tops: the bigger the tops, the bigger the bulb. Provide August-planted scallions with the frost protection of a cloche or heavy row cover by the end of October. Stop watering in the beginning of August to mature the bulbs in dry soil. After half the tops have fallen, push over the remainder, wait a week and lift the bulbs. Curing is essential for long storage. Spread bulbs out in the sun for about a week, covering them at night to protect from dew. When the outer layer of the onion changes from moist to dry and crisp, it is cured. If weather is poor, cure inside. Storage: Keep onions in mesh sacks or hang in braids so they get good ventilation, and hang sacks where air is dry and very cool, but not freezing. Check them regularly and remove any sprouting or rotting onions. Well-cured storage onions should keep until late spring.full sunmoistsandy5 gramsHuge, straw-yellow globes up to 20cm (8") in diameter! Firm, with mild, sweet flesh, Ailsa is a fairly good storer. Fine textured, excellent for salads and sandwiches. A customer favourite!

Choose sweet onion varieties for enjoying raw or cooked within a couple of months of harvest. Storage types keep much longer, and will last until the follwoing spring in the right conditions. All onions are photoperiodic - day length triggers bulbing. Our varieties are all "long day" types, suitable for northern US and Canada.

Botrytis blast and downy mildew are common leaf diseases. One starts with white spots and streaks, the other with purple-grey areas on leaves. Leaves wither from the top down and plants die prematurely. Separate the overwintered and spring crops because disease starts in older plants and moves to younger. Avoid overhead watering and plant in open sunny locations. Use lots of compost and practice strict sanitation and rotation procedures. Spraying with copper hydroxide every 7-14 days at the first sign of a problem may help prevent disease from spreading.

The pungent odour of onions repels many pests and also protects nearby garden vegetables.
Food, Seasoning
206Onion, Hybrid, yellow storageAlliaceaeAllium cepa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-04 00:00:00230 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5105full sun0 eachFood
94Onion, RedwingAlliaceaeAllium cepa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-03 00:00:00200 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant5Start indoors in February to mid-March, and transplant in April. Overwintering onions need to be started in early July, and transplanted by the middle of August, and will be ready in June. Scallions can be direct sown every 3 weeks from April to late August. Optimal soil temperature for germination: 21-25°C (70-75°F). Seeds will emerge in 6-12 days, depending on conditions.

Transplants are preferred for home gardeners. Sow 3 seeds 5mm-1cm (¼-½") deep in each cell of a 72-cell tray. Transplant as a clump, spacing each 12-15cm (5-6") apart in rows 45-75cm (18-30") apart. Scallions can be spaced at 2-5cm (1-2") apart in rows 15cm (6") apart.

In optimal conditions at least 75% of seeds should germinate. Usual seed life: 1 year. Per 100' row: 260 seeds (scallions 1.2M), per acre: 76M seeds (scallions 1,045M).
110Ideal pH: 5.5-6.5 (6.0-6.8 for scallions). Fertile and well-drained soil in full sun is essential. Add well-rotted compost and dig ½-1 cup copmlete organic fertilizer into the soil beneath each 3m (10') of row. Keep moisture high in the top 20-30cm (8-12") of soil. Most of the bulb should form on the surface of the soil, so don't transplant too deeply. Bulb size is dependent on the size of the tops: the bigger the tops, the bigger the bulb. Provide August-planted scallions with the frost protection of a cloche or heavy row cover by the end of October.full sunwell drainedrich150 eachThe ultimate in a red-skinned storage onion, this one stores nearly as well as Copra. Redwing produces globe-shaped bulbs 7-10cm (3-4") across, with unique deep-red, glossy skins and strong tops. Red onions are milder than yellow ones.

Choose sweet onion varieties for enjoying raw or cooked within a couple of months of harvest. Storage types keep much longer, and will last until the follwoing spring in the right conditions. All onions are photoperiodic - day length triggers bulbing. Our varieties are all "long day" types, suitable for northern US and Canada.

Stop watering in the beginning of August to mature the bulbs in dry soil. After half the tops have fallen, push over the remainder, wait a week and lift the bulbs. Curing is essential for long storage. Spread bulbs out in the sun for about a week, covering them at night to protect from dew. When the outer layer of the onion changes from moist to dry and crisp, it is cured. If weather is poor, cure inside. Storage: Keep onions in mesh sacks or hang in braids so they get good ventilation, and hang sacks where air is dry and very cool, but not freezing. Check them regularly and remove any sprouting or rotting onions. Well-cured storage onions should keep until late spring.

Botrytis blast and downy mildew are common leaf diseases. One starts with white spots and streaks, the other with purple-grey areas on leaves. Leaves wither from the top down and plants die prematurely. Separate the overwintered and spring crops because disease starts in older plants and moves to younger. Avoid overhead watering and plant in open sunny locations. Use lots of compost and practice strict sanitation and rotation procedures. Spraying with copper hydroxide every 7-14 days at the first sign of a problem may help prevent disease from spreading.

The pungent odour of onions repels many pests and also protects nearby garden vegetables.
Food, Seasoning
230Peas, MammothFabaceaePisum sativum (dg fo pf wp)857 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
232Peas, Purple peas (Shelley's)FabaceaePisum sativum (dg fo pf wp)80 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
231Peas, PurplepodFabaceaePisum sativum (dg fo pf wp)8225 each2010 Harvest, most likely wrong name as it doesn't appear on either pfaf.org or wikipedia.Nitrogen, ProteinFood
233Peas, Snow PeasFabaceaePisum sativum (dg fo pf wp)8800 eachNitrogen fixers. It also may come because of their tendency to grow at the end of winter, just before the last spring freeze. They can be covered with snow - hence the name - during these times, but still keep growing well.Nitrogen, ProteinFood
234Peas, WindhorseFabaceaePisum sativum (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-01 00:00:00200 each seeds in outdoor soilplant8520 eachNitrogen, ProteinFood
56PennyroyalLamiaceaeMentha pulegium (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-07 00:00:00520 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantDIVISION: Preferred propagation, as menthas cross readily and seed will not breed true reliably. Also, even in true M. pulegium, medicinal value differs widely between plants. Find the ones you like, and divide them to propagate clones. Divide any time of year. SEED: Sow spring in cold frame. Sow on surface in spring. Space plants 6 inches apart.Plant prefers moist garden soil, areas that puddle up and then go dry, the edge of a stream or ditch, or the margin of a pond. Grow in containers if the spreading habit of this plant makes you uncomfortable, but the rest of us let it go where it will, as it is self-limiting when it meets -- dry soil.sun or partial shadeseasonal floodingpoor100 eachHerbaceous or in warmer zones evergreen perennial native to Europe. One of the smallest of the mints, it creeps around in moist places and sends up its pretty flowering tops to a height of only about a foot, in the summer. Pennyroyal makes a bright tea that is well appreciated by many, but it should never be used during pregnancy.Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Carminative, Detergent, Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Fragrance, Insect Repellant, Insectiary, Sedative, Stimulant, Strewing, Uterine tonic
57Pepper, African Bird; Pilipili Hoho; Pilipili Kichaa; African Bird Peppers; Birdseye Pepper; Pequin; Piquin; PenguinSolanaceaeCapsicum frutescens (dg fo pf wp)8Start indoors 40 to 50 days prior to the last frost. Thin seedlings to at least 2 inches apart in the flat. Transplant out to garden after the soil has really warmed up. We grow ours in a cloche even in the summer, as cold nights can set them back. The best compost for peppers is higher in phosphorous than nitrogen. Kelp is well-tolerated and makes for outrageous yields.170Peppers prefer a scanty, even water supply, good drainage, full sun, and a long, hot summer. Excellent choice for greenhouse pepper growers or folks growing peppers in the South or Gulf States, as well as in the tropics.full sunwell drained180,000 Scoville Heat Units. Perennial bush pepper. 170 days to maturity, best yields in the second year. These are grown by us on our farm here in Southern Oregon, the culmination of a long learning in the subject of African peppers. The plant itself is comely, 4 feet tall and with a flat top, leaves light green. Peppers are tiny, fiery hot, thin-skinned and easily dried, green at first, turning bright red at maturity (see pictures).

One of the primary reasons for my last trip to Zanzibar was to find a reputable and viable source of "bird peppers." These peppers find their way into local cuisine, to flavor samosas and curries, and they are used worldwide for making sauces, vinegars and medicinal compounds. The flavor is citrusy, smoky, and nutty (if you can get past the incredible hotness of them). Clearly, one way to get past the hotness and appreciate these peppers is to use them sparingly in cuisine -- a little goes a long way!

Medicinally, bird peppers are potently anticarcinogenic, warming, carminative, digestive, and stimulating. Tiny, fiery hot, thin-skinned and easily dried.
Carminative, Ornamental, Seasoning, Stimulant
58Pepper, Criolla SellaSolanaceaeCapsicum baccatum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-05 00:00:0054 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant8Easy to germ in cool soils.Criolla Sella is highly adaptable to northern temperate gardens and resistant to viral pathogens.50 eachThe plants are short and sturdy, studded copiously with the golden-orange, thin-skinned peppers. These are not too hot, and they have a very citrusy taste. We eat them fresh, squeezed between the layers that make up our summer sandwiches, cut them into salsa, or dry and grind them up into chili powder. Since Criolla matures before other peppers, even here in our mountain farm where the nights are cool, we prefer this variety over all others. Besides, the taste is phenomenal and the heat units are low enough to allow consumption of many without after effects except perhaps a warm glow down below!Food, Seasoning
59Pepper, JalapenoSolanaceaeCapsicum annuum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-01 00:00:00190 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant80 eachJalapenos are easy to grow and the load of fruit on the compact bushes is really a bit absurdly large for the size of the plant. The word "overloaded" comes to mind. The fruits are thick-skinned and blunt, fat even, and are best used for pickling and for making chile. They are pretty hot, but not fiery hot. They can be harvested green or allowed to ripen to a bright red.Food, Seasoning
101Pepper, Sweet AppleSolanaceaeCapsicum annuum (dg fo pf wp)2012-03-30 00:00:00400 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant8full sun25 eachThese chunky peppers are sweet and delicious, also easy to grow. An heirloom from Hungary, Sweet Apple Pepper loves hot weather, but will still produce if the summer turns cool. Fat round fruits are good for eating right off the bush, even when young and pale. They're superb in the skillet as they redden up and ripen. Bushy plants grow 2' to 3' tall, are very productive and not fussy. Seeds are very hard to find outside Hungary.Food
261Pepper, Xiao-mi-la; Chinese Chile PepperSolanaceaeCapsicum frutescens (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-05 00:00:0028 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant8Start peppers indoors about 6 weeks before planting outdoors. Don't let the seedlings crowd -- thin to the best individuals and work them up in pots for maximum size at transplant. When they get about a foot tall, stake them so they don't fall over. But these are pretty stout and staking is not a big deal. Peppers like frequent, shallow watering and they do well with compost and especially seaweed applications such as kelp. Very fast-draining soils are preferred, and full sun of course. Wait until they go red to harvest them, then dry slowly on a screen, turning daily. After they are fully dry, you can grind them up or put them in a jar for later use.120full sunwell drainedrich50 eachScoville ~90,000 Open-pollinated cultivar. Matures in 120 days. I remember sweating in a restaurant in Kunming, as every dish was garnished or imbedded with chilis that looked just like these. This is probably the most popular chili to use in Chinese cuisine, as it is smallish (a little smaller than a cayenne), pleasantly hot, very very red, easy to grow. The bush is stout and small-leaved, giving rise to upright clusters, fingerlike, blunt, of peppers, not curved, resplendent, prettier than an emperor and tasty. I found these to be quite tolerant of our cold nights and very high yielding -- we'll have peppers galore this winter. Or pepper skins, to be exact. The seeds are now dried and they are a very rich yellow, 100% organic from our farm to your's. May the peppers garland your tables in yummy warmness.Food, Seasoning
98PotatoSolanaceaeSolanum tuberosum (dg fo pf wp)Potatoes are tolerant of cool soils and moderate frosts. Minimum soil temperature at planting time should be 6°C (43°F). Plants will emerge about 2-3 weeks after planting. Set tubers approximately 7-10cm (3-4") deep, and 30cm (12") apart in prepared trenches spaced 60cm (24") apart.Ideal pH: 5.5-6.5. Well-drained, loamy soil rich in organic matter is preferred, but potatoes are not overly fussy. If heavy clay or clay/loam soils are used, double-digging and improving organic matter content by growing cover crops or adding compost or manure can correct drainage problems. Do not lime areas planned for potatoes. When the above-ground portion of the plant is 30cm (12") tall, "hill up" soil 15cm (6") around the plants. It's okay to cover green leaves. Straw or grass mulch also works well. This process can be repeated up two or three times. It is recommended that no irrigation take place between planting and sprout emergence in order to avoid disease. It is important, though, not to let the soil become too dry, and to irrigate while plants are flowering.full sunwell drainedrich500 gramsWest Coast Seeds mixed assortment. Perfect for the small garden - or even the patio potato grower - and new for 2010, our 500g Mixed Assortment of CERTIFIED ORGANIC seed potatoes offers several different varieties in one convenient package. Seed potatoes produce approximately ten times their own weight for each one planted. This Mixed Assortment includes Sieglinde, Chieftan, Yukon Gold, Russian Blue, and Russian Banana Fingerlings. This assortment is subject to availability.

Potatoes are important to the self-sufficient gardener and the gourmet gardener. Easy to grow, highly nutritious and there is a variety for every use in the kitchen. Some are for baking, some are for salads, some for French fries. You should try them all!

"New" potatoes can be harvested about 7-8 weeks after planting. Potatoes grown for late summer and fall "fresh" use can be dug when tubers are full size or when foliage begins to die. For potatoes grown for storage and winter use, harvest should take place after vines have died back, alternatively, the plants may have to be cut or mown. After killing and removing the plants, tubers should stay in the ground for another 2 weeks to allow firming of their skins for storage. Optimum storage conditions are a dark location 4-7º C (40-45ºF) and 90% relative humidity. Paper sacks stored in a garage will suffice. Check them often though to remove any that are starting to go soft.

Late blight (Phytopthera infestans) is problematic, especially on the Coast. Symptoms appear as water-soaked gray spots on tips and margins of leaves, leaf axils, and on stems. Even if nothing shows on the leaves, late blight makes black spots under the skin of the tuber. Left unchecked, it will destroy the plant. Copper spray is effective if applied regularly through the growing season, including drenching the soil. The most important step to avoiding disease is to establish a vigorous and healthy crop; this can be accomplished by using disease free seed, planting in rich soil, avoiding pre-emergence irrigation and watering carefully once the crop emerges.

The most common pests to bother your potatoes on the coast are wireworms (especially in gardens recently taken out of grass).

Wireworms are the larvae form of a very slender black beetle known as the Click Beetle because if you turn one over, when it goes to right itself, it makes a "Click!" sound. The beetle lays its eggs in grass, and the larvae eat in our gardens. They burrow into the roots, seeds, and underground stems of tomatoes, corn, potatoes, peppers, and squash. The damage is worse on land that has been recently been converted from lawn to garden. The larvae themselves are crisp, golden, up to 1cm long and can live for up to 7 years in the soil.

If your seeds don't appear to sprout, or the plants wilt and die suddenly, your soil may have wireworms. An irregular pattern of plants dying in a field is typical of wireworm damage. To find out if you have wireworms before you start planting, create bait made of carrot and potato pieces. Bury the bait in 10cm of soil, and mark it with a stick. Dig it up in 3 or 4 days. If there are more than 1 or 2 wireworms per bait, you have a problem. They are difficult to control but regular cultivation of the top 10cm of the soil, as well as trapping them on pieces of potato, and crop rotation will slow the damage. Digging in an overwintered Cole crop can also be effective. Predatory nematodes work also.
CarbohydrateFood
82Pumpkin, Styrian Hull-lessCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)2013-06-01 00:00:0018 each starts in outdoor soiltransplantPrepare the hill or the bed with plenty of aged manure or compost, direct-seed the seeds, and choose the three best seedlings from the hill (or if row cropping, thin to 1 plant every 3 feet). Keep weeded and watered. Vines will soon become self-mulching.90full sunrich30 eachThis is a unique pumpkin cultivar developed in the provice of Styria in Austria.

We have been thinking about the challenge of finding ways that people can grow protein-rich foods in temperated gardens with high yield for the effort and without the need for a lot of processing. Our search lead us eventually to the naked seeded pumpkin (so-called hull-less or Styrian pumpkins). These pumpkins have a seed that is encased only in a thin membrane, which may be consumed along with the seed. The seeds can be lightly toasted with a little salt or eaten raw and uncooked.

This is a convenient protein source, a good snack or addition to smoothies or salads, rich in unsaturated fat, an immune tonic and tonic to the reproductive organs of both females and males. Consumption of the seed is a specific for treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as prostate cancer.

These pumpkins are all about the seeds -- the flesh itself is low sugar and not particularly tasty. They make good goat food. So back to being after the seeds, which are a great protein source, we obtained some nice open-pollinated seed of this plant and grew a large patch of it this year. The plant turned out to be problem-free, fast-growing and a rewardingly prolific producer of the large fruits.

Harvest and processing: Harvest pumpkins after first frost, split open and scoop out seeds and spaghetti onto a table screen. Using your hands and a garden hose, work the mash and water it down until the seeds are free of spaghetti. Scoop up the seeds and air dry them on screens, stirring several times per day, until the seeds are dry and stable. Store in paper bags.
PotassiumAnthelmintic, Food, Forage, Immunostimulant, Oil, Veterinary
244Quinoa, Brightest BrilliantChenopodiaceaeChenopodium quinoa (dg fo pf wp)3Seed - sow April in situ. The seed can either be sown broadcast or in rows about 25cm apart, thinning the plants to about every 10cm. Germination is rapid, even in fairly dry conditions. Be careful not to weed out the seedlings because they look very similar to some common garden weeds[K]. Cultivated Beds;full sunmoist0 eachProteinFood
245Quinoa, Multi-huedChenopodiaceaeChenopodium quinoa (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-15 00:00:0050% germ3Seed - sow April in situ. The seed can either be sown broadcast or in rows about 25cm apart, thinning the plants to about every 10cm. Germination is rapid, even in fairly dry conditions. Be careful not to weed out the seedlings because they look very similar to some common garden weeds[K]. Cultivated Beds;full sunmoist700 eachProteinFood
207Raddish, AltaglobeBrassicaceaeRaphanus sativus (dg fo pf wp)528Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shademoistloam110 eachThe large, deep cherry-red, smooth and perfectly round roots are a visual and taste treat. Dark-green tops are short and tidy for neat bunching. It has good disease resistance and holds in the garden without becoming woody.Food
208Raddish, Cherry BelleBrassicaceaeRaphanus sativus (dg fo pf wp)4Seed - sow outdoors in situ in succession from late winter to the middle of summer. Germination takes place within a few days of sowing the seed. If you want a constant supply of the roots then you need to sow seed every 2 - 3 weeks.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shademoist125 gramsCertified OrganicFood
209Radicchio, Hybrid, tall trevisioBrassicaceaeRaphanus sativus (dg fo pf wp)90 eachFood
265Rye, FallPoaceaeSecale cereale (dg fo pf wp)Seed: sow March or October in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.

An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but prefers a well-drained light soil in a sunny position.

It thrives on infertile, submarginal areas and is renouned for its ability to grow on sandy soils.

Established plants are drought tolerant. The plant is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of of 22 to 176cm, an annual temperature in the range of of 4.3 to 21.3°C and a pH of 4.5 to 8.2.

Rye is a widely cultivated temperate zone cereal crop. It is able to withstand severe climatic conditions and can be grown much further north and at higher altitudes than wheat.

Average yields vary widely from country to country, the world average is around 1.6 tonnes per hectare with yields of almost 7 tonnes per hectare achieved in Norway.

There are many named varieties. Rye is a rather variable species and botanists have divided it into a number of sub-species, all of which could be of value in breeding programmes. These sub-species are briefly listed below:

S. cereale afghanicum (Vavilov.) K.Hammer. Native to the Caucasus, western Asia and India.

S. cereale ancestrale Zhuk. Native to western Asia.

S. cereale dighoricum Vavilov. Native to the Caucasus and eastern europe.

S. cereale segetale Zhuk. Native to temperate Asia.

Rye grows well with cornflowers and pansies, though it inhibits the growth of poppies and couch grass.
full sunwell drainedpoor25000 gramsEdible seed: cooked. A common cereal, it is used especially in N. Europe to make bread. The seed contains about 13% protein. The grain also contains some gluten, though not as much as wheat, so it makes a heavier bread than wheat. It can also be used to make cakes etc. The seed can be sprouted and added to salads.

Malt, a sweet substance produced by germinating the seed, is extracted from the roasted germinated seed and used as a sweetening agent and in making beer etc. The roasted (ungerminated) seed is used as a coffee substitute.

The straw is used as a fuel or as a biomass in industry. It is quite strong and can also be used in thatching, for paper making, weaving mats and hats etc. Other uses for the straw include as a packing material for nursery stock, bricks and tiles, for bedding, archery targets, and mushroom compost.

The plant is a good green manure crop. It is fast growing with an extensive and deep root system. It is especially useful if sown in late autumn. Its growth over the winter will prevent soil erosion and the leaching of nutrients from the soil, it can then be incorporated into the soil in the spring. The extensive root system also makes this a good plant to use for soil stabilization, especially on sandy soils.
Carbohydrate, Phosphorous, Potassium, ProteinBeverage, Cancer, Fibre, Fuel, Green manure, Laxative, Oil, Poultice, Soil stabilization, Sweetening
66Schisandra; Wu-wei-ziSchisandraceaeSchisandra chinensis (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-28 00:00:0032 each seeds in 8cc blocksplantExtra care. Soak berries overnight and remove seed from fruit before planting. Give 2 weeks cold conditioning or plant outdoors in fall or early spring.Likes a shady situation. Cold hardy.full shadePerennial woody vine. Native to Manchuria, northeastern China and Japan. The odoriferous pink or white flowers give way to bright red fruit which droops down in clusters from the vine. This is known as the many-flavored berry. The taste is sour and the effect stimulating. Used in Chinese medicine as an immune-enhancing herb.Food, Fragrance, Sedative
67Sea BuckthornElaeagnaceaeHippophae rhamnoides (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-30 00:00:0032 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant14Scarify seeds and sow in warm, sandy soil. Germination is in 2 weeks or so -- a dependable and fun germinator. Space 10 or more feet apart.20 eachDioecious, spiny shrub to small tree. Native to temperate Europe and Asia. All zones. The tree, even when young and bush-like, is excellent in hedgerows and shelterbelts. The fruit juice is loaded with vitamins, amino acids and antioxidants; improves immune response. Oil of seeds is an effective sunblock.NitrogenFood, Immunostimulant
96Spinach, Bloomsdale SavoyChenopodiaceaeSpinacia oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-06 00:00:00188 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant12Spinach does best in cool weather. Direct sow March 1 to April 15, and again after August 1. For late spring and early summer plantings use Tyee, and for quick harvest use Space and Olympia. Spinach will bolt once days get long and hot. Some varieties grow enough to harvest before they bolt. For continuous supply, plant every 3 weeks. Optimal soil temperature: 5-20°C (45-70°F). Seeds should sprout in 7-14 days.

Sow seeds 2cm (1") deep, 10 seeds per 30cm (12"), in rows 30-45cm (12-18") apart. Thin to at least 5-8cm (2-3") between plants, or further if you want larger leaves.

In optimal conditions at least 65% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 3 years. Per 100' row: 400 seeds, per acre: 174M seeds.
50The trick to growing spinach is to grow it fast and harvset it fast, and use the right varieties in the right season. Spinach bolts as the days get long and when the weather gets hot. That's why spinach is usually grown in early spring and fall, in low temperatures and short days. Some varieties do a little better in long day, hot conditions. Pick them promplty in hot weather. For summer harvests, try New Zealand Spinach. Ideal pH: 6.0-6.5. This heavy feeder requires rich soil. Dig in ¼-½ cup complete organic fertilizer beneath every 1m (3') of row. Overwintering spinach requires well drained soil.sun or partial shadewell drainedrich25 gramsThis HEIRLOOM great tasting spinach has thick, succulent, dark-green savoyed or crumpled leaves that are very sweet in salads or cooked. It is best planted in early spring and fall. If fall-planted, it will overwinter and produce much earlier than if it is spring-planted.

For baby greens, pick when the leaves are 7-10cm (3-4") long. Individual leaves can be picked at anytime, until the plant has started to bolt. Cut the whole spinach plant just above soil level.

Pale, soft tunnels on leaves are probably leaf miner damage. Prevent be covering with floating row cover. You can kill the little insect causing the damage by pinching it inside the leaf. Destroy any affected leaves. Downy mildew is a fungal disease that causes grayish mould on the leaves. To avoid it, provide ample ventilation and avoid overhead watering.
Iron, Vitamin AFood
210Spinach, Red OrachChenopodiaceaeSpinacia oleracea (dg fo pf wp)2013-05-16 00:00:00discard120 eachIron, Vitamin AFood
216SquashCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)20 eachPotassiumFood
211Squash, AcornCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)14Seed - sow early to mid spring in a greenhouse in a rich soil. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. Sow 2 or 3 seeds per pot and thin out to the best plant. Grow them on fast and plant out after the last expected frosts, giving them cloche or frame protection for at least their first few weeks if you are trying them outdoors.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shadewell drainedloam80 eachComing from the 2010 harvest.PotassiumAnthelmintic, Food, Veterinary
92Squash, Early ButternutCucurbitaceaeCucurbita moschata (dg fo pf wp)7Direct sow or transplant in late May or early June once the soil is warm. For transplants, start seeds indoors during the first two weeks of May. Make sure plants are in the ground no later than June 15th. Optimal soil temperature: 25-35°C (68-95°F). Seeds should germinate in 7-14 days.

Sow seeds 2cm (1") deep. Sow 3 seeds in each spot where you want a plant to grow, and thin to the strongest plant. Space summer squash 45-60cm (18-24") apart in rows 90-120cm (36-48") apart. Give winter squash and pumpkins even more room with a minimum of 90-120cm (36-48") apart in rows 120-180cm (48-72") apart.

In optimal conditions at least 80% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 2 years. Per 100' row: 180 seeds, per acre: 15M seeds.
110Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. These big plants need lots of food. Use 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer worked into the soil beneath each plant. All squash grow male flowers first, at later female flowers. The female flowers have tiny fruits at the base of their petals and require pollination by bees mostly. Incomplete pollination often happens at the beginning of the season, and results in misshapen fruits that are withered at the flower end. Just discard these damaged fruits before they begin to rot.. You can encourage bees to your garden by growing Phacelia or Buckwheat for improved pollination.full sun5 gramsReplaces Zenith. AAS winner. Medium-sized squash are uniform on productive, semi-bush plants. Each has a small seed cavity in dark orange sweet flesh with a tender, thin skin.

The three species of squash that we offer represent a wide variety of shapes and colours. Each will cross-polliinate readily whithin their species. For instance, all C. pepo will cross-pollinate with each other, but not with C. maxima or C. moschata. For people who want to save their seeds, this is a very important consideration. The fruits themselves will not be affected by cross pollination, but the seeds inside will be, so squash need to be grown in isolation from other members of their species if seed saving is the goal.

Fruit is ripe if your thumbnail doesn't mark the skin and the stem is dry and brown. Cut the stem about 4cm (2") from the fruit. Squash survive a light frost, but store better if harvested before frost.

Storage: Field-cure for 10 days in the sun, or cure indoors in a warm room for 4 or 5 days. To prevent mould sponge the skins with a solution of 10 parts water to 1 part chlorine bleach. Store at 10-15ºC (50-60ºF) with low humidity with good air circulation. Try on a shelf in the garage.

Bacterial wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila) - Remove an destrow infested plants. If striped or spotted cucumber beetles appear, control as early as possible. Powdery mildew - avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so that above ground parts of the plants dry as quickly as possible. Avoid crowding plants and eliminate weeds around plants and garden area to improve air circulation. Viral disease - remove and destroy entire infested plant along with immediately surrounding soil and soil clinging to roots.

Carbohydrate, Potassium, Vitamin AFood
88Squash, Pattypans, SunburstCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)7Direct sow or transplant in late May or early June once the soil is warm. For transplants, start seeds indoors during the first two weeks of May. Make sure plants are in the ground no later than June 15th. Optimal soil temperature: 25-35°C (68-95°F). Seeds should germinate in 7-14 days.

Sow seeds 2cm (1") deep. Sow 3 seeds in each spot where you want a plant to grow, and thin to the strongest plant. Space summer squash 45-60cm (18-24") apart in rows 90-120cm (36-48") apart. Give winter squash and pumpkins even more room with a minimum of 90-120cm (36-48") apart in rows 120-180cm (48-72") apart.

In optimal conditions at least 80% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 2 years. Per 100' row: 180 seeds, per acre: 15M seeds.
60Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. These big plants need lots of food. Use 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer worked into the soil beneath each plant. All squash grow male flowers first, at later female flowers. The female flowers have tiny fruits at the base of their petals and require pollination by bees mostly. Incomplete pollination often happens at the beginning of the season, and results in misshapen fruits that are withered at the flower end. Just discard these damaged fruits before they begin to rot. You can encourage bees to your garden by growing Phacelia or Buckwheat for improved pollination.full sunrich2 gramsVivid deep yellow pattypans look like jewels nestling in a big bush. These dazzling miniatures are best picked at 5cm (2"). Steam them whole for a treat.

The three species of squash that we offer represent a wide variety of shapes and colours. Each will cross-polliinate readily whithin their species. For instance, all C. pepo will cross-pollinate with each other, but not with C. maxima or C. moschata. For people who want to save their seeds, this is a very important consideration. The fruits themselves will not be affected by cross pollination, but the seeds inside will be, so squash need to be grown in isolation from other members of their species if seed saving is the goal.

Summer Squash: pick when small, if fruit gets big the plant stops producing. Check the plants regularly!

Winter Squash: Fruit is ripe if your thumbnail doesn't mark the skin and the stem is dry and brown. Cut the stem about 4cm (2") from the fruit. Squash survive a light frost, but store better if harvested before frost.

Storage: Field-cure for 10 days in the sun, or cure indoors in a warm room for 4 or 5 days. To prevent mould sponge the skins with a solution of 10 parts water to 1 part chlorine bleach. Store at 10-15ºC (50-60ºF) with low humidity with good air circulation. Try on a shelf in the garage.

Bacterial wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila) - Remove an destrow infested plants. If striped or spotted cucumber beetles appear, control as early as possible. Powdery mildew - avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so that above ground parts of the plants dry as quickly as possible. Avoid crowding plants and eliminate weeds around plants and garden area to improve air circulation. Viral disease - remove and destroy entire infested plant along with immediately surrounding soil and soil clinging to roots.
PotassiumFood
12Squash, Red Kuri; Japanese Red Kuri Squash; Hokkaido Squash; Baby Red Hubbard; Uchiki KuriCucurbitaceaeCucurbita maxima (dg fo pf wp)Standard vegetable culture. Prepare a rich hill and direct seed 5 seeds per hill, then thin to the best 3 seedlings. Allow the plants to sprangle. Give them plenty of room -- they will extend at least 5 feet in every direction, unless you train them to do otherwise, which by the way can be done. Water deeply twice a week.15 eachNative to Mesoamarica and grown worldwide. We found this squash to be gratifyingly vigorous and pest resistant, and it gave more food value per square foot than just about anything else we grew in the garden. The flea beetles did go after the seedlings right when the ground warmed up in the early summer, but we spread some neem seed meal around the plants and on the young leaves and this saved them. I think some of the seedlings would have made it through without treatment, but I was already salivating, so didn't push my luck. The plants doubled in size every day or two. It was amazing to watch them grow. Good compost, I guess (thanks to Kalesh). Each vine bore 3 (more or less) bright globular fruits, and since we saved three plants per hill, that gave 9 squashes per hill, which was a lot. But it was not too many -- we ate them all! This is our favorite squash. We like to split it, scoop out the insides (which is really easy to do, given the shape) and bake the halves in the oven until done. As the squash cooks, it creates its own sugary glaze. We find it unnecessary to augment the natural nuttiness and sweetness with any oily or sugary additive. We like to eat these as they are, but we also like to make them into pumpkin pies. We think they make the best of all pumpkin pies, not only because they are particularly tasty, but because the flesh is dry, meaty, and stringless, and reconstitutes admirably well inside a pie shell. (Too much water in squash used to make pumpkin pies is a real no no.) We found that our's were harvestable before frost and didn't need to be stored to develop sugar. But the standard method with squash is to harvest after the first light frost, wash with cold water and sun dry, then put into cool, dry storage. Another option is to go into a baking frenzy and bake the fruits and then smash the clean flesh into freezer containers and freeze for later use. We like to freeze them in 3 cup baggies, just enough to make 2 pumpkin pies, or augment a winter dinner.PotassiumFood, Veterinary
212Squash, SpaghettiCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)14Seed - sow early to mid spring in a greenhouse in a rich soil. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. Sow 2 or 3 seeds per pot and thin out to the best plant. Grow them on fast and plant out after the last expected frosts, giving them cloche or frame protection for at least their first few weeks if you are trying them outdoors.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shademoist16 eachFrom harvest 2010PotassiumAnthelmintic, Food, Veterinary
213Squash, Summer, straight neckCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)46full sun2450 eachOrganic. Smooth bright yellow summer squash. Compact bush plants yield belicious squash which add color and flavour to summer dishes. Food
215Squash, Winter, small striped delicataCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)14Seed - sow early to mid spring in a greenhouse in a rich soil. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. Sow 2 or 3 seeds per pot and thin out to the best plant. Grow them on fast and plant out after the last expected frosts, giving them cloche or frame protection for at least their first few weeks if you are trying them outdoors.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shademoist135 eachPotassiumFood
68Stevia; Yerba Dulce; Sweet HerbAsteraceaeStevia rebaudiana (dg fo pf wp)7Heat-dependent germinator does best if sown just under the surface, tamped well, kept evenly moist and in direct sun or under lights or in a greenhouse with temperatures from 80 to 85 degrees F. Germination in 1 to 2 weeks. Protect from slugs, which like the sweetness about as well as any other beast. Prick seedlings into gallon pots or transplant out to garden at about 1 foot spacing in the temperate north and about 2 foot spacing in warmer zones.Plants thrive in rich garden soil, and also they do very well in pots. Tend to get a bit leggy so cut them back to encourage lower branch growth. Plants prefer full sun to part shade and humidity, and plenty of water.sun or partial shademoistrich25 eachTender herbaceous perennial in the temperate north and evergreen subshrub in warmer climates (zone 9 and up). May be effectively grown as an annual. Native to Paraguay and Brazil.

The dried leaf is used for sweetening drinks and is purportedly 250 times sweeter than sugar.

Medicinally, stevia is used as a flavoring agent, a wound healer, a treatment for hypoglycemia, and a digestive aid.
Sweetening
69Sumac, Smooth; Sumach TreeAnacardiaceaeRhus glabra (dg fo pf wp)Scarify and sow in spring.Plant prefers part shade to full sun and will flourish in any soil, including clay.sun or partial shadeSmall deciduous tree to 15 feet, with a flattened, spreading crown. All zones. Throughout North America, the several species of Sumac decorate field, roadside and yard with their deep-red, fall colors and erect, cone-like clusters of fruit. The fruit is covered with fuzz, rich in malic and ascorbic acid crystals, very high in vitamin C. You can make tasty sun tea from these fruits.Alterative, Antiseptic, Appetizer, Astringent, Beverage, Diuretic, Dye, Emetic, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Galactogogue, Haemostatic, Hedge, Mordant, Oil, Ophthalmic, Pioneer, Refrigerant, Rubefacient, Salve, Shelterbelt, Soil stabilization, Tannin, TB, Tonic, Wood
71Sunflower, Fat MamaAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Direct seed in the garden after the soil has warmed up in the spring or early summer. Put sunflowers to the back, as they tend to block access if you put them right in front. You can plant scarlet emperor beans at the same time, and they will run up the stalks. Normally sunflowers are thinned to at least a foot between each plant, and the rows are spaced about 3 feet apart. The fat mama under the right conditions will grow to 9 feet tall.full sunmoist50 eachTall, single-flowered sunflowers with fat heads bearing striped seeds that are the best kind for eating and for feeding to birds. These can also be used for making sunflower oil.

This is one of the best oil plants that can be easily grown by gardeners in the temperate north. Native American peoples extracted the oil by boiling the seeds in large pots, whereupon the oil rose to the surface of the water and could be skimmed off. Think about it. How would you do in your household without cooking oil? It's an ancient commodity, and it behooves us to maintain the ability and the right to make our own.

Of course, all this reductionist information should be taken with a grain of salt -- you can just grow 1 sunflower if you want -- you don't have to put them in rows -- and you can plant them closer together or further apart if you want -- it doesn't matter too much -- and you may find that if you've got great sun and plenty of water and a fertile soil that they top out at 12 feet, or if the soil is poor, with scant water or in the shade, then they may never do too much at all, in which case it might be more productive to just eat the sprouts than to expect a big sunflower. But all in all, these are super duper easy to grow, a good subject for kid's gardens or the kid in all of us, and given reasonable conditions you can expect very impressive results!
Fat, ProteinPhosphorousFood, Forage, Insectiary, Ornamental
70Sunflower, Hopi Black Dye; Black Oil SunflowerAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Horizon Herbs recommends direct-seeding in the spring. Plant a bit close at first, protect from crows, and eat the sprouts. Thin to 2 feet apart.90full sun30 each90-100 days to maturity. Generally single-headed although occasionally poly-headed, the plants are sturdy of stem and consistently dark black of seed. The ray flowers are golden yellow.

The seeds are used by Native Americans for dyeing wool and basketry. Imparts a color-fast light purple. Heirloom variety from Hopi Land, an oil, food, and dye plant that has its roots in ancient prehistory. One of the first domesticated plants, archaeological evidence points to the middle archaic period for the first human harboring of sunflower. The black seeded sunflowers are generally considered to be best for oil, while the striped sunflowers are considered to be best for direct consumption. However, I do admit that I ate the germ test! The seeds are very rich in oil. Native americans ground the seeds and boiled, then skimmed the oil. In native culture, vegetable oil is considered one of the most precious of substances. Also, the seeds are very good for eating, and the sprouts are potently delicious and healing to digestive woes.

Please plant Hopi black dye sunflowers -- this heirloom variety is endangered by all the new polyhead sunflowers that are being developed for selling as pretty flowers in farmer's markets. This one is just as pretty, and it is much more useful.
Fat, ProteinPhosphorousDye, Food, Forage, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental
246Sunflowers, unknown varietyAsteraceaeHelianthus annuus (dg fo pf wp)Start seeds indoors mid-March or outdoors mid-April to mid-May. Plant 3 cm deep, 15 cm apart.Cultivated Beds;sun or partial shademoist0 eachFat, Phosphorous, ProteinFood, Insectiary, Oil, Ornamental
217Tomatillo, Toma VerdeSolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum (dg fo pf wp)0 eachFood
218Tomato, AlicanteSolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-03 00:00:00165 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant6full sun0 eachFood
219Tomato, BeefsteakSolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum (dg fo pf wp)2013-03-27 00:00:0075 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant690full sunmoist160 eachOrganic. Vigorous intermediate vines with bright juicy fruit averaging 10 ounces. Excellent slicer. Matures in 90 daysFood
312Tomato, Cherry, Black CrimSolanaceaeLycopersicon lycopersicum (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:0059 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant6Start seeds indoors eight weeks before last frost. Transplant after danger of frost has passed, 30-45 cm apart, indeterminate. Will need to be staked.90full sunrichFood
221Tomato, Cherry, SweetieSolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum (dg fo pf wp)2013-03-27 00:00:00161 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant675Soil temperature must be at least 21°C.full sun0 each(West Coast Seeds) A flavourful early red cherry tomato, Sweetie forms crack-resistant, firm 2-3 cm fruit. Sweet, juicy clusters are produced all summer on this reliable vine.

Timing: start transplanting indoor March-April

Seeding: In a sterile seed starter mix, sow seeds 1cm deep in individual pots. Soil temperature must be at least 21 degrees. Pot up into larger pots as needed.

Growing: To reduce legginess, provide strong light very close to the seedlings, and use gradually exposing to the weather, then transplant cold hardy varieties in mid-late April, and main season types in mid-late May on the Coast.

Seed specs: Canada #1 germination standard 75%. Usual seed life: 3 years.
Food
220Tomato, Oregon SpringSolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum (dg fo pf wp)2012-04-04 00:00:0092 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant6full sun0 eachFood
222Tomato, PasteSolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum (dg fo pf wp)2013-03-27 00:00:00138 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant6full sun0 each(Seedy Saturday 2010)Food
73Tree Tomato; Red Fruited Tree Tomato; Tamarillo; Tomate de ArbolSolanaceaeCyphomandra betacea (dg fo pf wp)28Sow seeds anytime in pots or flats and keep very warm, moist and in the light. Germination occurs just about one day later than the day that you say "I guess these are never going to come up." That day is around day 30 or so. If you're used to growing tomatoes from seed then the culture for Cyphomandra is very similar except for the fact that it takes the seeds three times longer to come up, and what you get is quite a lot larger and potentially much more permanent than a tomato plant.

Seed: sow spring in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates within 4 weeks at 15°c, within 2 weeks at 25°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Cuttings of greenwood in a frame.

Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained soil. Prefers a light fertile soil. Dislikes drought. Plants are very prone to wind damage.

They fruit best with a temperature range of 16 - 22°c in the growing season.

The tree tomato is cultivated for its edible fruit in sub-tropical and tropical zones, there are some named varieties. Grow in pot outdoors in the summer and bring in for the winter. It requires a minimum winter temperature of 10°c for best fruit production but it is hardy to about -2°c.

Trees produce about 20 kg of fruit a year, yields of 15 - 17 tonnes per hectare are achieved in New Zealand. Plants are probably insensitive to day-length.

Very fast growing, it starts to fruit within two years from seed and reaches peak production in 3 - 4 years. Trees are, however, short-lived - the life of a commercial plantation is about 8 years.

This species does not hybridize easily with other members of the genus.

Plants have a shallow spreading root system and resent surface hoeing, they are best given a good mulch. Plants usually ripen their fruit over a period of time, though pruning methods can be used to produce a peak time of fruiting. The leaves have a pungent smell. Plants are subject to attacks by red spider mites.
Happiest above 15C, good indoors.sun or partial shadewell drainedloam10 eachSubtropical evergreen shrub to small tree, native to the Andes where it grows at elevations between 5 and 10,000 feet. The tree is most comfortable at temperatures above 50 degrees F but able to withstand a quick frost down to 28 degrees F. Tamarillos are fast growing and short-lived. They are shallow-rooted and their wood is quite brittle, so they do best when protected from wind. Their branches need support when the fruit weighs heavy. This curious tree can be grown in a container on a sunny porch, and is a reasonable choice for outdoor culture in S. Cal, the Gulf Coast and FL.

The tasty red fruits are high in vitamin A, B6, C, E and iron. Tamarillos prefer part sun and a thin surface mulch to keep the soil always a bit moist. The fruits are pendulous and as large as a paste tomato. They taste to me like a combination between kiwi and tomato. They are quite good.

Edible fruit, raw or cooked. The flavour can vary considerably from tree to tree, the best forms are juicy and sub-acid, they are eaten out of hand, added to salads, used in preserves, jams, jellies etc. The fruit contains about 150 IU vitamin A per 100g, 25mg vitamin C, it is rich in vitamin E and iron but low in carbohydrate. Fruits are 4 - 10cm long and 3 - 5cm wide.
Iron, Vitamin A, Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Vitamin C, Vitamin EFood
97Turnip, Purple Top White GlobeBrassicaceaeBrassica rapa (dg fo pf wp)3Direct sow in March and April and again August to the beginning of October (weather permitting). Optimal soil temperature for germination: 18-21°C (66-70°F). Seeds should sprout in 7-14 days.

Sow 5mm-1cm (¼-½") deep in rows spaced 45-60cm (18-24") apart, and thin to 10-15cm (4-6") apart in the row.

At least 80% of seeds will germinate in optimal conditions. Usual seed life: 4 years. Per 100' row: 300 seeds, per acre: 87M seeds.
55Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. Humus-rich, deeply cultivated soil is key. Add plenty of well rotted compost or manure to th ebeds and cultivate to a depth of 20cm (8"). Dig in 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer for every 3m (10') of row. The real secret to success with turnips is speed. Sow short rows every 2-3 weeks, thin them quickly, keep them watered, harvest, and then sow some more.full sunmoistrich10 gramsCERTIFIED ORGANIC! Roots are smooth and nearly round. Bright purple on top and creamy white in the lower portion. They are mild flavoured and sweet. Can reach 13cm (5") in diameter but are better for eating when picked at 5-8cm (2-3").

Summer turnips are great for salads, pickles, and stir-fries. Any place that you would use spinach or Swiss chard, you can give turnip greens a try.

Gather greens and roots from June to October. Immature seed pods are also tasty.

Remember that turnips are members of the Brassica family, so they should not be planted where other Brassicas have been grown in the past 4 years. This simple crop rotation will prevent nearly all diseases from occurring in the first place. Floating row cover will protect plants from cabbage moth and flea beetles.

CarbohydrateFood, Forage, Sacrificial
75ValerianValerianaceaeValeriana officinalis (dg fo pf wp)10Seed is short-lived and should be sown within a year of receipt. Light dependent germinator. Sow in spring, tamped securely into surface, and keep evenly moist until germination, which occurs in 10 to 16 days. Seedling leaves look very un-valerian at first and some folks are confused. But have faith, in time the leaves will become divided and much more closely resemble the standard form of the plant. Space plants 1 to 2 feet apart.

Seed: sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed because it requires light for germination. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant out into their permanent positions in the summer if sufficient growth has been made. If the plants are too small to plant out, grow them on in the greenhouse or frame for their first winter and plant them out early in the following summer.

Division: in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.


A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in ordinary garden soil, preferring a rich heavy loam in a moist site. Thrives in full sun or in partial shade, doing well in light woodland.

A polymorphic species, the more extreme variations are given specific status by some botanists. Valerian is often grown in the herb garden and also sometimes grown commercially as a medicinal herb.

When grown for its medicinal root, the plant should not be allowed to flower. The flowers and the dried roots have a strong smell somewhat resembling stale perspiration. Cats are very fond of this plant, particularly the powdered root. Once a cat has discovered a plant they will often destroy it by constantly rolling over it.

The dried root also attracts rats and can be used as a bait in traps. A good companion for most plants.
730Valerian prefers full sun to part shade and moist but well-drained soils. I have seen excellent clumps form, during a wet spring, on the peak of a pile of ground pumice. However, regular garden soil amended with organic compost will do nicely. The plant adapts rather well to a wide range of conditions.sun or partial shademoistclay0 eachHerbaceous perennial. Native to Europe and temperate Asia.

One of the best phosphorous accumulators.

Probably the strongest herbal cerebral sedative, the plant makes one go to sleep. All parts of the plant are active, but it is the spreading root and root crown, dug and used fresh, that is most commonly used, and the tincture of the fresh root is the most common dosage form. However, I have gone to sleep after eating a salad that an unwitting apprentice had prepared using valerian leaves as an ingredient, and I've had multiple correspondences from folks that make tinctures out of the fresh flowers. Regardless of how you make the potion, it is well-known that Valerian does not work on everybody. Some folks are stimulated by it. However, most of us go to sleep under her influence.

Flowers white in the second year to a height of 5 feet or more. Some companies are slinging varieties of Valerian that they claim are medicinally superior to the standard European strain (which is what we grow). However, the standard strain is plenty good enough to do the job.

Valerian is a well-known and frequently used medicinal herb that has a long and proven history of efficacy. It is noted especially for its effect as a tranquilliser and nervine, particularly for those people suffering from nervous overstrain. Valerian has been shown to encourage sleep, improve sleep quality and reduce blood pressure. It is also used internally in the treatment of painful menstruation, cramps, hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome etc.

It should not be prescribed for patients with liver problems.

Externally, it is used to treat eczema, ulcers and minor injuries.

The active ingredients are called valepotriates, research has confirmed that these have a calming effect on agitated people, but are also a stimulant in cases of fatigue.

The roots of 2 year old plants are harvested in the autumn once the leaves have died down and are used fresh or dried. The fresh root is about 3 times as effective as roots dried at 40°, whilst temperatures above 82° destroy the active principle in the root.

Use with caution, can lead to addiction.

The plant yields about 1% of an essential oil from the roots.

Seed is edible. An essential oil from the leaves and root is used as a flavouring in ice cream, baked goods, condiments etc. It is especially important in apple flavours. The leaves can also be used as a condiment. The plant is used in moderation as a herbal tea.

It is used in perfumery to provide a 'mossy' aroma, though the scent is considered to be disagreeable by many people. The dried roots are also placed in linen cupboards and clothes drawers in order to scent the clothes.

The dried root attracts rats and cats, it can be used as a bait to lure them away from other areas.

An ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost. The plant can also be used to make a very good liquid plant feed. It attracts earthworms. The leaves are very rich in phosphorus.
PhosphorousAntispasmodic, Beverage, Carminative, Compost, Diuretic, Essential, Flavouring, Fragrance, Hypnotic, Insectiary, Nervine, Sedative, Stimulant
76Vervain, BlueVerbenaceaeVerbena hastata (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:00other14Sow in the early spring or give 2 weeks cold conditioning by putting seeds in moist medium in a plastic bag in the fridge (not freezer) and then sow in warm soil. Germ in 2 to 4 weeks. Space plants 6 inches apart.

Seed: sow early spring in a greenhouse or cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Division in spring. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Basal cuttings in early summer. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 - 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Succeeds in any moderately fertile well-drained but moisture retentive soil in a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -20°c.

Plants prefer full sun to part shade and moist garden soils. Good drainage is not a necessary prerequisite. If there is a concern that the plant will spread, then keep it in a pot, or provide other suitable barriers.sun or partial shademoist200 eachUpright, creeping, self-seeding herbaceous perennial significant in medicine and ritual. Native to the Eastern US. Bright blue flowers on reddish-tinted plants, in multiple, long-lasting, handsome spikes.

Fresh or dried leaf, in tincture or tea, is a bitter remedy for treating indigestion, colds, and fevers. A good ingredient for home brew, it is also a traditional offering plant to honor the garden spirits. The plant will placate ills, real or imagined. Once imagined, ills become real, don't they? It's a quirk of the human condition that most of us would like to escape. Vervain helps you escape.

The leaves and roots are used medicinally; roots are more active than the leaves. The plant is used in the treatment of stomach aches, gravel, worms and scrofula. An infusion of the roots, leaves or seeds has been used in the early stages of fevers. A snuff made from the dried flowers has been used to treat nose bleeds.

Seed are edible cooked. The seed can be roasted and ground into a powder or used whole as a piñole. Pleasantly bitter, some of this bitterness can be removed by leeching the flour. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.
Antidepressant, Antiperiodic, Beverage, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Expectorant, Food, Ornamental, Tonic, Vermifuge, Vulnerary
85Watermelon, Moon and StarsCucurbitaceaeCitrullus lanatus (dg fo pf wp)7Sow indoors 3 weeks before last frost date in gallon pots and transplant. Or, seed directly in the garden once the soil has truly warmed up. Plant 1/2 inch deep and tamp securely. Germ in one week. Thin or transplant to 3 plants per hill, and space hills at least 6 feet apart. Watermelon require plenty of room to grow!65full sunwell drainedrich20 eachAnnual vine bearing large oblong fruits ranging in weight from 10 to 30 lbs, sometimes more. Watermelon prefers rich, sandy soil and does best in the full sun. When preparing pots for starting our's, I mixed 50% pure compost with 50% sand, and when I thinned the seedlings, noticed a vigorous branching root system after a little more than a week. A good sign. When transplanting the seeds, they tended to stick to my fingers, also a good sign, because they are covered with residual sugar, a sweet memory of last year's crop. Moon and stars is an heirloom classic -- large fruited, with very sweet red flesh and an outer skin that is dark green with yellow markings that resemble the moon and the stars shining out from the dark firmament. I don't know about you, but I don't trust a watermelon that doesn't make seeds. I like to be able to collect seeds and replant them year after year. I like to engage in watermelion seed spitting contests, which I swear I once won, if only we could've found the seed. I like red fleshed watermelons best of all. I've tried all the different kinds, and I think moon and stars are the best. We direct seeded our's second week of June and we were eating watermelons by Labor day, and still eating watermelons on Oct 1. My friend Charlie in Bath Co. Kentucky planted the same lot of seeds and he got 30 lb fruits, bigger than what we accomplished here in the mountains of Southern Oregon. So judging by this I'd say this watermelon works in a wide range of climates. We offer a big packet for a small price.Food
258Wild HollyhockMalvaceaeAlcea rosea (dg fo pf wp)14Seed: sow April/May or August/September in pots or in situ. Easily grown from seed, which usually germinates in about 2 - 3 weeks at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Division after flowering. Only use rust-free specimens.

Root cuttings in December.

Basal cuttings at almost any time of year.

Succeeds in most soils. Poor soils should be enriched with organic matter. Prefers a heavy rich soil and a sheltered sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -15°c.

A very ornamental plant, it is usually grown as a biennial due to its susceptibility to the fungal disease 'rust'. There are many named varieties. Young plants, and also the young growth in spring, are very attractive to slugs.
sun or partial shademoistclay0 eachThe flowers are demulcent, diuretic and emollient. They are useful in the treatment of chest complaints, and a decoction is used to improve blood circulation, for the treatment of constipation, dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhage etc.

The flowers are harvested when they are open and are dried for later use. The shoots are used to ease a difficult labour. The root is astringent and demulcent. It is crushed and applied as a poultice to ulcers. Internally, it is used in the treatment of dysentery. The roots and the flowers are used in Tibetan medicine, where they are said to have a sweet, acrid taste and a neutral potency. They are used in the treatment of inflammations of the kidneys/womb, vaginal/seminal discharge, and the roots on their own are used to treat loss of appetite.

The seed is demulcent, diuretic and febrifuge.

Edible: young leaves, raw or cooked. A mild flavour, but the texture leaves something to be desired. They have been used as a pot-herb, though they are not particularly palatable. They can also be chopped up finely and added to salads.

Inner portion of young stems, raw. Flower petals and flower buds, raw. Added to salads.

A nutritious starch is obtained from the root.

A refreshing tea is made from the flower petals.

A fibre obtained from the stems is used in papermaking. The fibres are about 1.9mm long. The stems are harvested in late summer, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the fibres can be removed. The fibres are cooked with lye for 2 hours and then ball milled for 3 hours or pounded with mallets. The paper is light tan in colour.

The flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost.

The seed contains 12% of a drying oil.

The red anthocyanin constituent of the flowers is used as a litmus.

A brown dye is obtained from the petals.
Antiinflammatory, Astringent, Beverage, Compost, Demulcent, Diuretic, Dye, Emollient, Febrifuge, Fibre, Litmus, Oil, Ornamental
81Woodruff, Sweet; WoodderowffeRubiaceaeGalium odoratum (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-27 00:00:00otherSeed: best sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in late summer. The seed can also be sown in spring though it may be very slow to germinate. A period of cold stratification helps reduce the germination time. Lots of leafmold in the soil and the shade of trees also improves germination rates.

Division: in spring. The plant can also be successfully divided throughout the growing season if the divisions are kept moist until they are established. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Cuttings of soft wood, after flowering, in a frame.

Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade. Tolerates dry soils but the leaves quickly become scorched when growing in full sun. This species does not thrive in a hot climate. Prefers a moist calcareous soil. Dislikes very acid soils. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. This species is very tolerant of atmospheric pollution and grows well in towns.

A very cold-hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c.

Sweet woodruff is occasionally cultivated in the herb garden for its medicinal and other uses. The dried foliage has the sweet scent of newly mown hay. A very ornamental plant but it spreads rapidly and can be invasive. However, this is rarely to the detriment of other plants since these are normally able to grow through it.

It does no harm to any plants more than 60cm tall.
full shademoist30 eachPerennial creeping ground cover. Excellent choice for low light areas, the plant is spreading, white-flowered, and highly aromatic. Ingredient in ales of old (and old ales).

Sweet woodruff was widely used in herbal medicine during the Middle Ages, gaining a reputation as an external application to wounds and cuts and also taken internally in the treatment of digestive and liver problems. In current day herbalism it is valued mainly for its tonic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory affect. An infusion is used in the treatment of insomnia and nervous tension, varicose veins, biliary obstruction, hepatitis and jaundice.

The plant is harvested just before or as it comes into flower and can be dried for later use. The dried plant contains coumarins and these act to prevent the clotting of blood - though in excessive doses it can cause internal bleeding. The plant is grown commercially as a source of coumarin, used to make an anticoagulant drug.

A number of species in this genus contain asperuloside, a substance that produces coumarin and gives the scent of new-mown hay as the plant dries. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins (hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. A homeopathic remedy made from the plant is used in the treatment of inflammation of the uterus.

Edible: Leaves, raw or cooked. The leaves are coumarin-scented (like freshly mown hay), they are used as a flavouring in cooling drinks and are also added to fruit salads etc.

The leaves are soaked in white wine to make 'Maitrank', an aromatic tonic drink that is made in Alsace. A fragrant and delicious tea is made from the green-dried leaves and flowers. Slightly wilted leaves are used, the tea has a fresh, grassy flavour. The sweet-scented flowers are eaten or used as a garnish.

A red dye is obtained from the root. Soft-tan and grey-green dyes are obtained from the stems and leaves.

A good ground-cover plant for growing on woodland edges or in the cool shade of shrubs. It spreads rapidly at the roots. It is an ideal carpeting plant for bulbs to grow through. Although the fresh plant has very little aroma, as it dries it becomes very aromatic with the scent of newly-mown grass and then retains this aroma for years. It is used in the linen cupboard to protect from moths etc. It was also formerly used as a strewing herb and is an ingredient of pot-pourri. It was also hung up in bunches in the home in order to keep the rooms cool and fragrant during the summertime.
Antispasmodic, Beverage, Cardiac, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Dye, Fragrance, Homeopathy, Insect Repellant, Seasoning, Sedative, Strewing
282WormwoodAsteraceaeArtemisia absinthium (dg fo pf wp)2013-04-26 00:00:00100 each seeds in 8cc blocksplant180Seed: surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates within 2 - 26 weeks at 15°c[134]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. They can be planted out in the summer, or kept in pots in a cold frame for the winter and then planted out in the spring.

Cuttings: half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.

Division: in spring or autumn.

Succeeds in any soil, but best in poor, dry, warm soil, which also promotes longevity and aroma.
sun or partial shadewell drainedpoor0 eachInhibits growth of fennel, sage, caraway, anise, and most young plants, especially in wet years [14, 18, 20].

Good companion to carrots, protecting them from root fly[201].

Deerproof, attracts dogs.

Fresh or dried shoots repel insects and mice. An infusion discourages slugs and insects.

Valued especially for its tonic effect on the liver, gallbladder and digestive system, and for its vermicidal activity[4, 238, 254].

Extremely useful medicine for those with weak and under-active digestion. It increases stomach acid and bile production, improving digestion and the absorption of nutrients[254]. It also eases wind and bloating and, if taken regularly, helps the body return to full vitality after a prolonged illness[254].

The leaves and flowering shoots are anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitumor, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypnotic, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge[4, 9, 21, 46, 165, 222, 254].

Harvested as it is coming into flower and then dried for later use[4]. Use with caution[21], the plant should be taken internally in small doses for short-term treatment only, preferably under the supervision of a qualified practitioner[238]. It should not be prescribed for children or pregnant women[238].

The extremely bitter leaves are chewed to stimulate the appetite[222]. The bitter taste on the tongue sets off a reflex action, stimulating stomach and other digestive secretions[254].

Leaves have been used with some success in the treatment of anorexia nervosa[244].

Applied externally to bruises and bites[238]. A warm compress has been used to ease sprains and strained muscles[257].

A homeopathic remedy is made from the leaves[9]. It is used to stimulate bile and gastric juice production and to treat disorders of the liver and gall bladder[9].
Anthelmintic, Antiinflammatory, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Antitumor, Carminative, Cholagogue, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Flavouring, Fragrance, Homeopathy, Hypnotic, Insect Repellant, Stimulant, Stomachic, Strewing, Tonic, Vermifuge, Veterinary
356Yam, Cinnamon or Chinese, Shan Yao, Huai ShanDiscorea batatas (dg fo pf wp)1095Woodland garden sunny edges, cultivated beds.sun or partial shadewell drainedclayCarbohydrate, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin CAnthelmintic, Antidote, Contraceptive, Digestive, Food
87Zucchini, Black BeautyCucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo (dg fo pf wp)7Direct sow or transplant in late May or early June when soil is warm. For transplants, start seeds indoors during the first two weeks of May. Optimal soil temperature for germination: 25-35°C (68-95°F). Seeds should sprout in 7-14 days.

Sow seeds 2cm (1") deep. Sow 3 seeds in each spot you want a plant to grow and thin to the strongest one. Aim to space zucchinis no less than 45-60cm (18-24") apart in rows 90-120cm (36-48") apart.


In optimal conditions at least 80% of seeds will germinate. Usual seed life: 2 years. Per 100' row: 180 seeds, per acre: 15M seeds.
60Ideal pH: 6.0-6.8. These big, fast-growing plants need plenty of moisture and lots of food. Grow them in rich, well-drained soil in full sun. Dig finished compost or well-rotted manure into the beds, and dig in 1 cup of complete organic fertilizer beneath each transplant. Water the soil around them when you irrigate, and always avoid overhead watering, as wet leaves will attract diseases like mildew. Keep weeded. Misshapen or withered fruits can result from incomplete pollination. Make sure to remove these from the plants as you see them, before they begin to rot, and put them in the compost.

In the home garden it can be tempting to over-plant zucchinis. One well-grown plant will provide enough fruits for the average family. Instead of planting several zuccinis, use that space for other vegetables.

Pick regularly to encourage the plant to keep on fruiting. Zucchini leaves are often very prickly, so pull delicate skinned fruit out carefully. Fully mature zucchini have a hard skin: chickens like them.

Zucchinis that are grown in good soil in full sun will have few problems. One common complaint is the development of powdery mildew on the leaves. This begins to show up in mid-summer as grey patches on the leaves and stems, and it literally is mildew. It results from excess moisture, and can be prevented or minimized by avoiding overhead watering at all times. Try to water plants early in the day, and only water the soil around them. Avoid over-crowding plants to improve air circulation around them. Leaves that are badly affected by mildew can be removed, but throw them in the garbage, not the compost.
full sunmoistrich5 gramsHEIRLOOM! The standard summer squash, introduced in the 1920s. Compact everbearing bush plants are loaded with glossy green/black fruits with firm white flesh. Best eaten when under 20cm (8" long). The best variety for freezing. Black Beauty zucchini won the All American Selections prize back in 1957! True zucchinis are evenly narrow along their length, and they are long - never round. We include summer pumpkins here as "round zucchinis" because they are so similar in growth habit and usefulness. Zucchinis that develop a bulbous end where the seed cavity forms, are referred to as Cocozelle types. At the end of the day, all are very productive summer squash.Food

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Antioxidants, Boron, Calcium, Carbohydrate, Chromium, Copper, Fat, Fat: Omega-3, Fibre: Non-Soluble, Folate, Iodine, Iron, Lycopene, Magnesium, Manganese, Niacin, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Protein, Silica, Sulfur, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Zinc

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This server and other EcoReality operations are 100% wind powered, with energy from Bullfrog Power. You can be, too!